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SABMiller: Improving Local Barley Supply Chains in India SABMiller, through its Business Call to Action initiative, is working to develop and improve local supply chains for barley, a key ingredient for the company's products, in Rajasthan, India. Through this initiative, the company is helping to promote sustainable social and economic development in this rural community. Business Call to Action India
The Nairobi Hospital Dr. Cleopa Mailu, the CEO of The Nairobi Hospital, is facing a challenging decision: which system should he recommend to the board? The Hospital urgently needs a new management information system to boost its competitiveness. Opinions in the management team remained diverged among three shortlisted vendors. Thus two weeks ago, Dr. Mailu was sent with other two colleagues to India and South Africa to further evaluate the vendors. It is hoped that the site visits would finally help him to make a clear-cut decision. However, this trip offers little help to make the decision more obvious. Three days later, he is going to meet the Hospital Board, who are expecting a recommendation that will not waste a $500,000 investment and harm their trust in this new CEO. United States International University (USIU) USIU-07-0101 Kenya
KasKazi Network B Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Improving Productivity and Increasing Incomes of Cocoa Farmers Enhancing farmer productivity and helping to attract the next generation to cocoa farming. Business Call to Action Ghana
KasKazi Network C Kenya
Standard Chartered: Enhancing Competitiveness of Small Businesses Through Skills and Capacity Building In 2008, Standard Chartered responded to the Business Call to Action by launching a pilot training program to provide promising small businesses in Pakistan with training and business development support. Standard Chartered's initiative leveraged its deep knowledge of enterprise development to help small businesses unlock their full growth potential and strengthen their capacity to access credit. Business Call to Action Pakistan
Tata Nano - The People's Car The case explores how Tata Motors, India's largest automobile company, developed the Nano, the world's cheapest car. The case focuses on the translation of Ratan Tata's (Chairman of Tata Motors) vision of a safe affordable car for the masses by Ravi Kant, Managing Director of Tata Motors into the Nano Project. The case raises questions around breaking the price - quality barrier and changing existing internal processes to accommodate revolutionary new ideas. The dilemma of success - Tata Nano was a runaway bestseller - left Tata Motors debating how large a bet they should make on the Nano and what kind of capacity commitment this requires.

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Darden Graduate School of Business Administration, University of Virginia India
Empowering the Poor Through Mobile Banking The majority of Uganda's 32 million citizens lack access to the financial sector, including banking services. MAP International, through its Business Call to Action initiative, seeks to remove barriers – such as physical infrastructure – that prevent so many Ugandans from entering the formal financial sector. Through its electronic and mobile banking platform, MAP International connects mobile phone users to banking services, empowering them to manage their money more efficiently and effectively and create new opportunities for long-term economic growth. Business Call to Action Uganda
The Coca-Cola Company; Innovations in Action: Enabling Jobs and Opportunity at the Base of the Pyramid In 2008, The Coca-Cola Company (TCCC) heeded the Business Call to Action to contribute to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)by leveraging its core business operations. TCCC pledged to significantly expand its network of locally owned, low cost microdistribution outlets, or Manual
Distribution Centers (MDCs), to provide employment opportunities and contribute to gender equality in base of the pyramid markets across Africa.
Business Call to Action Africa
Kaskazi Network A Management Growth, Distribution Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Nairobi Medical Stores Ltd. (B) In June 2005, Dr Benson Riungu was reviewing once again the position of his company. In August 2003, due to stiff competition, he had decided to implement a major strategic reorientation of his company by reducing the retail pharmacy that he had formerly owned and operated. By then, he had negotiated a business deal with a multinational company where Nairobi Medical Stores started representing in East Africa, a Japanese company, Nipro Corporation, a world leading developer and manufacturer of specialized medical devices and artificial organs. These included haemodialysis equipment & consumables and other artificial organs in regenerative medicine like nerves, membranes and blood vessels. In October 2004, he had further negotiated for a second line of specialized products as the regional representative in East Africa for Foss Analytical, a group of companies (Denmark/Sweden/USA), market leaders in developing and manufacturing Analytical Equipment using Infra-Red (IR) or Near Infra-Red (NIR) Spectroscopy for chemical analysis in pharmaceutical, chemical, and food industries as well as agriculture and analytical laboratories. In both agency appointments, he acknowledges the invaluable support and guidance he was given by the respective Trade/Commercial Attaché's in the embassies of these countries. He wanted to evaluate how good or bad this strategic decision had been. And in any way, whatever his evaluation and judgment, he was faced with several dilemmas regarding his future plans. Strathmore Business School Kenya
Marvelous Batiks Mzumbe University Tanzania
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING IN EXPANDING ORGANIZATIONS: The Case of Moshi University College of Cooperatives and Business Studies Moshi University College of Cooperatives and Business Studies Tanzania
Media Monitoring Services: Adding Value to Advertising Media Monitoring Services struggles to compete with a new market entrant. Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Cutix PLC: Facing the Challenges of Cheap Imports Chief Ajulu Uzodike, the chairman and CEO of Cutix PLC1 was putting together his 2005 strategic plan for the board meeting scheduled for February 21, 2005. He was faced with the challenges of growing the business in the face of increased competition from other local manufacturers and cheap imports from Southeast Asia. He also had to figure out how to attract the right personnel to work in the company, which was located in Nnewi, in the eastern part of Nigeria. Lagos Business School Nigeria
Ibeto Group (A): The Case for the e-enterprise It was early 2003 under a year after returning from the United States to join the family business when Nonso Ibeto admitted that things needed to change at the Ibeto Group of Companies. In the few months he had spent as Executive Director of Operations, he had to admit that access to accurate and timely information was somewhat of a luxury! In his mind, Nonso knew he needed an enterprise system to transform the companies under the Ibeto Group into e-enterprises. He had inadvertently sent out “virtual” requests for proposals (RFPs), reviewed several solutions, and finally he had to choose between two foreign-based enterprise application systems, SunAccounts and SAP R/3. Lagos Business School Nigeria
Jay Kay Pharmacy Ltd. In August 2002, Mr Jimi Agbaje was wondering whether or not to purchase car stereos and install air-conditioners in the cars of Jay Kay Pharmacy's sales force as requested by the Deputy General Manager, sales and marketing. Also awaiting his approval was a request for a promotional campaign which would cost millions of naira. As he reflected on this matter, he recalled a number of other past spending requests which had been challenging at the time. He recognized that they all seemed to have the same pattern. They involved spending a relatively large amount of money on items other than merchandise. He was worried about sending the wrong signals to the retail staff who had acquired a culture of being thrifty and cautious in their spending patterns. Lagos Business School Nigeria
Bakezone Ltd. Kenyatta University Kenya
Business Crossroads Kenyatta University Kenya
Comto Training Institute Kenyatta University Kenya
Fruity Fine Foods Ltd. Kenyatta University Kenya
Kids World Ltd: Market Segmentation Kenyatta University Kenya
Laforchette Caterers Kenyatta University Kenya
Metropolitan Hospital Dilemma Kenyatta University Kenya
Naphi Girls Hostel Kenyatta University Kenya
Patcab Tours Ltd. Kenyatta University Kenya
Rodimu Computer Garage Kenyatta University Kenya
ROLALINK LOGISTICS LTD. Kenyatta University Kenya
Royal Gates School: Marketing The Intangibles Kenyatta University Kenya
Signature Restaurant Kenyatta University Kenya
Skynet Holdings Ltd Kenyatta University Kenya
Snipper Bar & Restaurant Kenyatta University Kenya
Stan Consulting Group: Performance Management Kenyatta University Kenya
Star Sheikh Academy Kenyatta University Kenya
THE HQ INN (Exclusive Hotel and Conference Centre) Kenyatta University Kenya
The Magomano Service Station Kenyatta University Kenya
Transition at Elim Stars Academy Kenyatta University Kenya
Wine Makers Ltd. Kenyatta University Kenya
Competition in the Education Sector: Grace Ngumi and Mugumi-ini Academy The case describes Mrs. Grace Ngumi and her private school Mugumu-ini over a period of fifteen years from 1988 to 2004. During this time period the competition in the private school sector is becoming very intense and some competitors are using questionable tactics to increase their share. The key decision of the case is how to respond to the situation. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Growth of Enterprises: The Case of Petty Errands When Stephen Kiruri graduated from University, he had difficulties to finding employment. He found himself misused by family members and relatives who used him to handle their errands. Stephen felt that he could charge for his service, which led to the birth of Petty Errands. Today Petty Errands is one of the most successful courier services in Nairobi, end Stephen has been recognized as the “Most Inspiring Business Person” by Kenya Television Networks. The case follows Petty Errands over ten years, culminating with Stephen being faced with the decision whether to continue the business on his own, or whether to sell a minority or majority stake to raise capital for further expansion. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Utubora Bar Finance/Accounting, Entertainment Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Global Business School Network Harvard Business School United States of America
Nairobi Medical Stores Ltd. (A) In June 2003, Dr. Benson Riungu, a Bachelor of Pharmacy graduate of University of Nairobi, who was also the owner and the Chief Executive Officer of Nairobi Medical Stores Limited, was seriously considering what he should do regarding his retail pharmacy business. He was the sole owner and operator of two retail pharmacies, employing about ten people. However, for almost three years, his business was going from bad to worse, partly due to under performing economy and also, due to two Amendments on Laws of Kenya, Cap. 244 Act, regarding Pharmacy Practice regulations in Kenya. Previously, only graduate Pharmacists were licensed to operate retail pharmacies. However, in the year 2002, Kenyan Parliament passed a Bill allowing Pharmaceutical Technologists to operate their own retail pharmacies through: Statute Laws (Amendment) No 2 of 2002 dated June 4, 2002 and full legalization done in the year 2004 through Rules in Legislative Supplement (Amendment) No. 31 of August 6, 2004. This generated a major increase in the level of competition in a diminishing market, and therefore Dr. Riungu found it very difficulty to breakeven. Strathmore Business School Kenya
Customer Relationship Management at BBSN In March 2005 and after almost a decade in business, Ronke Dawodu, founder and Managing Director of BuyBest Supermarket Nigeria (BBSN), wondered when her company would develop the ability to track customers and reward them continuously for their loyalty and patronage. In addition, Ronke dreamed of a “BuyBest Shoppers Card”. Although BBSN had implemented an automated checkout controlled by a retail management system (RMS), they had not yet realised Ronke's dream of issuing shoppers cards and an automated customer loyalty management system. To achieve this, Ronke saw two potential options with regard to the technology. She could: 1) acquire and implement a customer relationship management (CRM) system or 2) implement a database marketing solution. Each option had advantages and disadvantages that she had to weigh. Lagos Business School Nigeria
Effort School or More Effort? Entrepreneurship, Education Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Emcom Computers Human Resource Management, Service Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Express Connections Ltd Express Connections was founded by Mr. & Mrs. Mwangi, two entrepreneurs with a very modest background. By providing a quality service for its customers, the company has grown to one of the largest and most successful Matatu transportation companies in Nairobi. The industry has recently been regulated, driving unscrupulous competitors out of business. One key case issue is how to respond to the enormous growth opportunities caused by the regulation of the market. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Franconomic Enterprises This “minicase series” describes Franconomic Enterprises, founded by Francis Waweru and his wife Priscilla Njoki. The case series allows students to follow the evolution of Franconomic Enterprises and the different challenges faced by entrepreneurs at different stages of the life cycle. Case A deals with problems encountered at the startup stage of a business. Case B deals with factors that affect the expansion of a business. Case C covers backward integration strategies, and case D how to manage the business during a crisis. Finally, case E looks at diversification opportunities. The case is ideally suited as an overview of entrepreneurship, for example as an introductory session of a course. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Jackson Gym Fitness Centre The case centers on Jackson, a bodybuilder and former Mr. Kenya, and his struggle to establish a fitness centre in Switzerland. The key learning points are about the personal characteristics of successful entrepreneurs in good and not so good times. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Melbreeze Salon Human Resource Management, Service Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Mitumba trust Community based organisation Development Studies, community development Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Muko's Dilemma: Diversification, Expansion, or Other? The case describes the planned and unplanned diversification of entrepreneur Muko's startup enterprise. Muko starts by exploiting an untapped need as a micro Liquid Petroleum Gas cylinder retail outlet, and later enters into the telephone business, cyber cafés and photocopiers. The case ends with Muko facing increasing competition, and the key issue is how to respond. The teaching objectives relate the case to Business Life Cycle Planning and Ansoff Matrixes. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Nairobi Film School Entrepreneurship, Education Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Neema Chemicals Strategic Management, Agrovet Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Safeway Academy Entrepreneurship, Education Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
San Valencia Strategic Management, Service Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Thika Garissa Road Services Entrepreneurship, Petroleum Dealer Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Tim Wanyonyi (A): Does Culture Trigger Entrepreneurship? Tim is a successful lawyer who has a life changing experience that leads to disability and a near financial disaster. The case covers Tim's dramatic return to business success, reflecting on his life experience, family background and birth place culture, showing the students that “disability is not inability.” Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Tim Wanyonyi (B): Small Business Success Factors The sequel case is built around Tim's self-reflection about what has been the reason for his success seven years after his life changing experience. The case discusses Tim's management style and how he attracts and keeps employees and customers, how he manages growth and diversification, and the role of his spouse in doing this. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture & Technology (JKUAT) Kenya
Adspot Limited (A) JKUAT Kenya
Adspot Limited (B) JKUAT Kenya
African Spice Safaris JKUAT Kenya
CTC Solutions Magnet JKUAT Kenya
Digital process Works limited (A) JKUAT Kenya
Digital process Works limited (B) JKUAT Kenya
Franklin Mwenda JKUAT Kenya
Jordan cross Millers case (A) JKUAT Kenya
Jordan cross Millers case (B) JKUAT Kenya
Kapital1-Panorama Ltd JKUAT Kenya
Maore's Utubora Bar JKUAT Kenya
Masters café JKUAT Kenya
Medical East Africa Ltd JKUAT Kenya
Open View Systems Limited (OPV) JKUAT Kenya
Pink Feeds JKUAT Kenya
Shaurimoyo Provision Shop JKUAT Kenya
Uzuri Institute JKUAT Kenya
Assured Insurance Brokers Assured Insurance Brokers must figure out a way to bring performance up to previously set employee- and firm-based benchmarks. Kenyatta University School of Business Kenya
Omu Net Omu-net comes up with expansion strategy options. Kenyatta University School of Business Kenya
Chonawi Engineering Metal Works In June 2005, Charles Onyango Awiti, the sole proprietor and manger of CHONAWI Engineering Metal Works located in Kahawa Wendani in Nairobi, was faced with a major decision. After reviewing the performance of his business for the 1st half of the year, he realized that there was a marked and unprecedented decline in the demand for his fabricated products. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Gateway Insurance Company Ltd. On 10th May 2005, Mr. Robert Kiboro, the General Manager – Operations of Gateway Insurance Company Ltd in Nairobi Kenya was preparing his report for a board meeting to be held on 23rd May 2005. The Managing Director had indicated to him that he was expected to make a report on how he would increases the sales production to meet the budgeted figures for 2005. Considering that the actual sales for the four months were below the target by 18% he wondered what action he should take to meet the 2005 budget sales production in the remaining eight months. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Kiambu Fertilizers Ltd. In Feb 2004, Mr Jyotindra Kanji, Director Kiambu Fertilizers Ltd. Limited in Nairobi had a major decision to make. He had recently discontinued stocking Monsanto seed products and was aware of the vacuum this decision created. He considered expanding the remaining line of seeds, but when a Western Seed Company salesperson approached him, he wasn't sure whether to disregard his deal or to grab it. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Moraa Fashions In July 2005, Ms. Brenda Shitechi, the owner/manager of Moraa Fashions located at Mutige Kiboti House, opposite Jivanjee Gardens in Nairobi, realized she had to address the perennial problem of her firm's inability to deliver its customers' orders on time as illustrated by data in appendix 1a and 1b. It was on 22nd of the same month when Roselyn Oruko, the firm's workshop manager had to once again apologize to two customers one of whom was Kimani Luhanga, whose wedding outfits' order had not been met one month after the due date! Brenda had to address the problem through the various causes of actions available to her. She had to act fast as the situation was proving bad for her business. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Simmers Restaurant Faced with the fast approaching Easter festivities of 2005, Mr. Suleiman Murunga, proprietor of Simmers Restaurant situated along Kenyatta Avenue in Nairobi, had to make a rapid decision regarding his long-standing resident band, in view of some customers' complaints. This was besides the fact that Simmers Restaurant was sandwiched between two five star hotels. Six Eight Hotel was on its west separated from Simmers Restaurant with only a street. Two streets away to the east of Simmers Restaurant was New Stanley Hotel. Apart from these challenges, Simmers Restaurant had a number of other hotels which served food within the radius of fifty meters. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Visions Hair and Beauty Center In March 2004, Mrs. Susan Njuguna, the owner manager of Visions Beauty Centre located at Kahawa estate in Nairobi had completed relocating to a facility that had adequate adjacent rooms in to which she could expand her operations. She had to choose her business growth option before the only space available could be taken up by another businessperson. For a long time, she had toyed with the idea of opening a Hair and Beauty School, which would mean putting capital into the new school instead of opening another salon. Kenyatta University (KU) Kenya
Bidco Looks to the African Markets for Growth (A) Successful companies go through several growth phases before they gain stability in the market place. As a company grows from a small enterprise, it faces many business and operational related challenges. This case study traces the growth of one of the leading edible oils and fats manufacturers in Kenya, namely Bidco Oil Refineries Ltd. The company started as a garment manufacturer, then moved to soaps, before adding products in the edible oils and fats category. After years of successful operations, the company realizes that the Kenyan market can no longer sustain the company's growth goals. Bidco is now looking for growth opportunities beyond Kenya. The CEO, Mr Vimal Shah, knows that there are many possible approaches to growing the business: exporting to more countries, developing new products, modifying the marketing mix, and diversifying into other businesses. The CEO is considering two options that seem attractive to grow Bidco's business. The first option is to build a manufacturing plant in Uganda to produce edible fats, oils and soaps. The government of Uganda is very keen to have such an investment because of the jobs it will create and the foreign exchange it will bring to the country. The second option the CEO is considering is a US$ 150 million investment in 30,000 hectares of palm plantation in Uganda. In order to make a choice on the investment opportunity that he should recommend to the board of directors, the CEO must take into account the pros and cons presented by each option. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Commercial Bank of Africa Ltd.: Using Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to Remain Competitive Commercial Bank of Africa (CBA) is a medium sized bank, incorporated in Kenya and serving the Kenyan corporate sector. The bank requires an Information Technology System to maintain customer relationships that are critical for the high-end market segment served by the bank. The Chief Executive Officer of CBA is facing an information technology management dilemma. In an attempt to retain CBA's position in the highly competitive banking industry, he needs to make a decision on how the IT department should be managed and its relationship with the rest of the business. In the past, the IT department has been the principal driver in the development and adoption of the different IT systems in the bank. It was responsible for the entire process of business needs assessment, technology choice, acquisition, implementation, support and change management. A new Executive Director has brought in an innovative philosophy to the bank, where business is supposed to drive the technology, unlike in the past. In this new arrangement, business managers are supposed to identify their needs and work with the IT department to develop appropriate IT solutions. The CEO is deliberating whether to continue with the tested and so far reliable IT management model, which has served the bank well or to adopt the new philosophy proposed by the executive director. This decision will have a significant effect on the future business strategy of the bank and its competitive position in Kenya. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Firestone East Africa (1969) Ltd. (A): Survival in the Tire Industry in Kenya After Liberalization This case describes the evolution and operations of Firestone East Africa (1969) limited. It describes how Firestone maintained growth and profitability through exploitation of its monopoly status under a government controlled and regulated trade regime up to a period when the marketing conditions changed due to the liberalization of Kenya's economy. Liberalization posed new challenges for Firestone. The company faced threats from new entrants in the market. This forced Firestone's management to re-think the competitive strategy of the firm. The management team at Firestone must decide what to do in response to the new marketing challenges. The case also provides an overview of Kenya's tyre industry under a trade-regulated regime. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Kenya Airways Ltd. (A) The Kenya Airways Group consisted of Kenya's national carrier Kenya Airways (KQ), Kenya Airfreight Handling Limited (KAHL), Africa Cargo Handling Limited (ACHL), Flamingo Airlines Limited, Galileo Kenya, and Kencargo Airlines International Limited. After privatization in 1996, the group had been growing consistently. It had acquired more aircraft, was carrying more passengers, and transporting more cargo. In February 2003, Mr. Titus Naikuni was hired as the Managing Director and CEO of the group. At the time of his appointment, the Group's profits were declining while revenues were increasing. Moreover, profit levels had dropped by 41.6% from the previous year. Something was causing the decline in Profits. The CEO felt that he needed to identify and deal with the cause of the decline in profits. He wondered whether he should begin his appointment by articulating his vision for the organization by developing new objectives and goals, or should he begin by addressing the profit situation first? United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) Ltd. The CEO of KTDA is faced with a crucial decision on how to address KTDA's information management challenges in order to transform KTDA into a modern, efficient and profitable organization that would provide high quality services to its clients. This decision is critical for KTDA Ltd., the leading player in Kenya's tea industry. The CEO has just reviewed two solutions proposed by the Information Technology (IT) Manager. KTDA's chief executive is convinced that IT systems are vital management tools for the company since KTDA is involved in all aspects of tea production, from growing, to processing, to marketing and exporting. However, the CEO knows that convincing the cost-conscious board on the most suitable information management approach to adopt would not be a simple task. He needs very convincing reasons to persuade the board to adopt either an Islands of Information system or a Wide Area Network system; both of which are capital-intensive projects. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Mabati Rolling Mills Ltd. (A): The State of the Art Continuous Galvanizing Line Project It was early, 1999, when Kaushik Shah, the Chief Executive Officer of Mabati Rolling Mills (MRM), and his team submitted a proposal to the Board of Directors requesting an approval to borrow Kshs 2.3 billion (US$ 30 million). The funds were required to enable the company to set-up a state of the art manufacturing facility at Mariakani factory, in Mombasa, the 2nd largest town in Kenya. The Board had rejected a similar proposal on the grounds that the management and the board had a different time horizon for the implementation of the project. The board would like the project to be time phased while the management would like a spot implementation of the project. The Board had pegged the project cost ceiling to US$24 while the management had projected cost pegged at US$30. In the proposal, four potential sources of funds had been specified. These were commercial papers, long-term loans, loans from the International banks and the floating of shares to the public. The key problem was how to source the funds bearing in mind the cost of capital. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Safaricom Ltd. (A): Crafting Business and Marketing Strategy for a New Product This case examines the challenges that marketers encounterwhen identifying potential market segments and the subsequent development of marketing strategies needed to serve the selected market segments. In the Safaricom case the problem is compounded because firstly, the managers are all new to that is dominated by a public monopoly, Telkom Kenya. Michael Joseph, the new CEO of the newly privatized Safaricom and his management team, are confronted with strategic and operational decisions needed to prepare the company to make a debut in Kenya's mthe environment and secondly, the significant market indicators point to a dismal market potential for mobile phones in Kenya. The telecommunications infrastructure and situation in Kenya before October 2000 shows a struggling industry obile telephone market. The new management team must make business and marketing strategy decisions that would make Safaricom achieve superior customer value and rapid market acceptance. The team must make decisions on the target market; market coverage; payment option; type of customer service; types of phones to be offered etc. with very limited market information, a situation which is often encountered when making investment decisions in developing countryenvironments. United States International University (USIU) Kenya
Alpha Medical Manufacturers Limited Alpha Medical Manufacturers Limited is a manufacturer of high quality single use disposable syringes. The company is facing competition from imports and problems with its equipment.The CEO must decide whether to invest in better machines or change focus to importation and distribution. The Alpha case highlights the Pharmaceutical industry in Kenya as well as competition in the syringe manufacturing sector in Kenya. Chandaria / USIU Kenya
ADHAO CASE ISM-Dakar Senegal
SIGMA ISM-Dakar Senegal
Société Immobilière de Dakar S.A
ISM-Dakar Senegal
Arbico Limited Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Haggai Community Bank Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Jide Taiwo & Co: Hanging in the Balance Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Karen Happuck Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Mangrove Restaurant Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Santa Val (A) Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Santa Val (B) Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Sensational Foods (SF) Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Soulmate: Taking the Plunge Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Superflux International Ltd (A) Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Superflux International Ltd (B) Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Talent Drycleaners Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
The Bridge Clinic Limited Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
The Nail Clinic Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
The Nationwide VSAT Project Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
VT Pharmacy Limited Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Western Soudan Exporters Lagos Business School/ Pan-African University Nigeria
Ideal Fittings Limited (A) It was 6p.m. on Friday 26 March 2004. Mr Banky Banjo and his son Wale had locked up their shop in central Lagos and were waiting for the Principal Partner of King & Co., Chartered Accountants, to arrive for a 6:30p.m. meeting. Banky Banjo looked up from the customer register and said to his son, “Wale, we have a lot to be grateful for, in just one year, we have built up a good client base and ensured that we have become one of the market leaders. Our Balance sheet and Profit and Loss statements show that we have done well but I wonder if this is a true position. Can we say that to the best of our ability, we have captured all the transactions?” Lagos Business School Nigeria
Ideal Fittings Limited (B) At their first meeting two weeks earlier, Mr. King presented the draft financial report they had prepared (Exhibits 1 & 2). After a quick review of the documents, Wale said to his Father, the CEO of Ideal Fittings Ltd; “After all the effort we made in 2003 to ensure that we put in place an accounting system that would produce complete and accurate accounting records, I can confidently say that the 2004 Accounts reflect a fair view of the position and performance of the business.” Lagos Business School Nigeria
Adenubi, S.O. Lago Business School Nigeria
Ghana AIDS Commission- Grantee Selection UCLA Ghana
Hope Care Foundation UCLA Ghana
Somerset Hospital: A Leadership & Human Resources Module case study UCLA South Africa
Transformation of a Private Hospital UCLA South Africa
Celtel Nigeria: Towards Serving the Rural Poor (A) ESMT Nigeria
NATIONAL FERTILIZER MARKETING LIMITED The General Manager Finance of NFML, Shaukat Mahmood reviewed the previous year's quarterly payments due to the factories, and the company's cash position in order to be able to forecast cash requirements to establish new bank borrowing limits for the coming year. NFML was exclusively responsible for marketing and distributing fertilizer produced by the six factories owned by its parent company, National Fertilizer Corporation. Mahmood also wanted to review the cash flow pattern and the items affecting the financial charges borne by NFML. He was anxious that financial costs be minimized. However, there was a trade-off between liquidity requirements and minimization of financial charges. The case traces sales and payment operations at NFML. Lahore University of Management Science Pakistan
Pakistan Railways Hadi Hussain, Chief Commercial Manager of Pakistan Railways reviewed the consultant's report based on aone-year study of every PR train. The consultant recommended discontinuation of certain trains. Decisionmaking involved product (service) costs in order to find product-wise profitability. Once profitability had been
assessed the information had to be analyzed with a view to retaining, discontinuing or enhancing the product
line. The case also addresses the issue of relevant or differential costing. Underlying concepts involve the application of cost behavior models, and cost allocation techniques to determine the full cost of providing a service.Hadi Hussain, Chief Commercial Manager of Pakistan Railways reviewed the consultant's report based on a one-year study of every PR train. The consultant recommended discontinuation of certain trains. Decisionmaking involved product service) costs in order to find product-wise profitability. Once profitability had been assessed the information had to be analyzed with a view to retaining, discontinuing or enhancing the product line. The case also addresses the issue f relevant or differential costing. Underlying concepts involve the application of cost behavior models, and cost allocation techniques to determine the full cost of providing a service.
Lahore University of Management Science Pakistan
Service Industries Limited In April 1984, the Finance Director of Service Industries Limited was preparing his recommendations for the coming Board of Directors meeting regarding the progress of the company's computerized stock control system. Lahore University of Management Science Pakistan
THE CHASE MANHATTAN BANK- PAKISTAN This case examines the asset liability management techniques used by a foreign commercial bank in Pakistan. The decision required by the financial manager was to see whether the financial position of the bank was in accordance with regulatory requirements and the bank's operating strategy. Issues involved help students to examine the structure of bank assets and liabilities and to conduct an ROE analysis. The case helps explore the effect of the regulations of the State Bank of Pakistan on the operations of a commercial bank. Lahore University of Management Science Pakistan
The Pakistan banking Industry Commercial banks have traditionally acted as intermediaries between clients with surplus funds they wish deployed in a profitable and secure manner and clients in need of funds and willing to pay for their use. From this simple type of transaction has developed a diversified, complex and highly regulated financial industry which involves banks and near banks; insurance companies, co-operative banks, finance companies and investment deals. This note discusses the Pakistan banking industry in detail. Lahore University of Management Science Pakistan
20TWENTY: ALTERNATIVE BANKING When Saambou Bank collapsed on 9 February 2002, 20twenty, its newly formed on-line banking arm, had only been in operation for six months. During the six months however, 20twenty had managed to capture the hearts of 40,000 customers with its innovative approach and fanatical service ethic, so much so, that most of its customers did not leave when Saambou collapsed, but stayed faithful to 20twenty until a rescuer came along 18 months later. The rescuer was UK bank, Standard Chartered, which wanted to open up an operation in South Africa and liked 20twenty's business model. Standard Chartered wanted 20twenty again to differentiate itself from its competitors by providing innovative banking services and fanatical dedication to its customers. However, this strategy might have worked two years previously, but would it still hold in 2004 when 20twenty re-launched? And if so, would it be sustainable in the long run? Wits Business School 804-038-1 South Africa
BELL DEWAR AND HALL: A CASE OF BALANCE To the outside world, Sarah Visagie was a partner at the law firm Bell Dewar & Hall (BDH). But those inside the firm knew that she was a junior partner and not an equity partner. This was largely because she felt unable to commit herself to earning the same fee targets as the other equity partners (all of whom happened to be men) on account of her family commitments and the 'shorter' hours she spent at the office. However, it had really hurt last year when a junior partner who was younger than her had leapfrogged her to the position of equity partner. The hurt had taken her by surprise - she had not expected to react in that way. How much worse would it be this year when yet more junior professionals rose above her? Having just returned from a wonderful end-of-year holiday with her family, Visagie found herself contemplating the year ahead. Inevitably, she found her thoughts turning to that question she had addressed so many times before - should she make herself available for equity partnership? The decision to do so would not be without risk or sacrifice. She would have to give up that little bit of family time she had fought so hard to preserve. She would also have to pay in a large amount of capital, which would postpone any immediate financial rewards. There would inevitably be prestige associated with the position, but that would be internal rather than external, because her name appeared on the firm's letterhead in any event. But she would be the first woman equity partner in the firm. She would establish herself as a role model and a pioneer. It was time for her to reassess and decide whether this was what she really wanted. Wits Business School 404-107-1 South Africa
BLACK ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT Background note The objective of this note is to define black economic empowerment (BEE) and understand its context in South Africa. The reasons for black economic empowerment and the enabling legislation are discussed. The note also addresses the impact of black economic empowerment on South African businesses, as well as some of the challenges faced at the time this note was written. Wits Business School 204-105-5 South Africa
DISCOVERYWORLD: WEB STRATEGY REALITY CHECK It was December 2000 and John Robertson, the Chief Information Officer (CIO) of Discovery, a healthcare finance and life insurance company, had to decide what to do with DiscoveryWorld, the group's e-commerce problem child. The project had been conceived at the end of 1999, in the full flush of dotcom optimism. It was an attempt to put into action a grandiose plan to dazzle Discovery's customers by creating an exciting site that they would enjoy visiting. At the same time, Discovery wanted the site to position the company as more than just another healthcare company. Now the project was a source of ever-increasing conflict and dissension within the group. Operating as a separate division that reported directly to the board, it was gobbling money and rubbing other members of the group up the wrong way with an arrogant and dismissive attitude. Moreover, DiscoveryWorld had not delivered on its promises, although there was definite potential in some of the functionality that it was developing. There had been high expectations of DiscoveryWorld when it started out, but the devil seemed to be in the implementation. Was the project worth salvaging? If so, what was the best way to do this? Wits Business School 904-019-1 South Africa
DOLLY MOKGATLE: CATCHING THE NEXT TRAIN It was nearing the end of March 2005. Dolly Mokgatle had surprised the nation by resigning as chief executive of South Africa's rail utility, Spoornet, at the beginning of the year, only eighteen months into her five-year contract. The press had speculated wildly about the causes of her resignation. The words of the new Transnet Chief Executive Officer, Maria Ramos, had been particularly cutting. 'We want people to be committed and work hard,' she had said. 'There is no space in Transnet for 'half measures'.' Before Mokgatle had taken up the post at Spoornet, she had felt that everything that had happened in her life and career to date had led her to that position. She had led a very successful change process in the transmission division of South Africa's electricity utility, Eskom. It had not been easy for her to resign from Spoornet. Now, almost three months had passed since her decision to leave and she felt that she needed to take stock of the lessons that she had learnt about leadership, management and herself from this experience. Wits Business School 305-420-1 South Africa
ENOS BANDA: FROM POLITICAL TO ECONOMIC ACTIVISM Enos Banda, the Chief Executive Officer of Eskom Enterprises, a subsidiary of state-owned electricity utility Eskom Holdings, considered the offer he had just received from financial services firm, First Africa, asking him whether he would consider becoming CEO of the firm. First Africa was one of the leading mergers and acquisitions advisors in South Africa. With its strong commitment to developing Africa, and black Africans in particular, the firm's philosophies dovetailed strongly with Banda's personal mission. However, Eskom Enterprises was implementing a restructuring process that Banda had initiated, and, if successful the organisation promised to be instrumental in developing the rest of the African continent – again a goal with which Banda identified. Should he take the talks with First Africa further, or should he see the process at Eskom Enterprises to its conclusion? Wits Business School 305-421-1 South Africa
FNB METRO: WAKING UP TO CHANGE It was June 2003 and just over a year-and-a-half since First National Bank (FNB) Metro (a division of FNB Retail) had completed the first stage of Vuka, an organisational transformation initiative aimed at changing FNB Metro's culture into one based on a shared vision and values, appreciated diversity and embraced personal empowerment. The first part of the initiative, during which all employees were sent on an intensive intervention aimed at breaking down racial barriers and generating common goals and values, had been a resounding success. There was greater racial harmony and a new unity at FNB Metro, as well as a common commitment to the company's vision. The bank's results had improved, as had its service levels. In addition, there had been a net increase in customer numbers at FNB Metro, reversing the negative trend of the previous few years. The second part of the initiative, which was intended to institutionalise the new culture, had met with patchy success. It hinged on establishing regular, values-based, non-hierarchical meetings throughout the bank. Staff were encouraged to bring issues of importance to the branch to these meetings so that they could be discussed and resolved. Peet van der Walt, the Chief Operating Officer of FNB Metro, wondered what could be done to embed the new culture in the organisation. Was it simply a matter of providing better training to the umhlangano facilitators, or would it require more than that? Wits Business School 404-047-1 South Africa
KGOSI LERUO MOLOTLEGI: TRADITIONAL LEADERSHIP IN A MODERN DEMOCRACY Kgosi Leruo Molotlegi became leader of the Bafokeng tribe in April 2000 upon the untimely death of his eldest brother. Unlike many other South African tribes, the Bafokeng had real title to the land they inhabited, and underneath this land were rich deposits of platinum. The Bafoken received royalties from the two mining companies that mined this platinum and were involved in a business relationship with these houses. As a result, the leadership of the Kgosi encompassed more than just the community issues. It encompassed business issues as well. It was difficult to keep a balance between the two. Serving the people was the foundation of leadership for the Kgosi, who was well aware that a king was only a king through his people. His absolute priority, therefore, was to ensure that he carried the people along with him in every decision that he made: both those that related to the community and those that related to its business interests. How was he to maintain the necessary balance and ensure that all of his constituencies received the attention they deserved? Wits Business School 205-094-1 South Africa
LAURIE DIPPENAAR: CORPORATE ENTREPRENEUR By 2004, Laurie Dippenaar had been at the helm of FirstRand, one of the largest financial services groups in South Africa, for six years. He was chairman of two of the companies within the FirstRand group the Momentum Group Limited and Discovery, both of which operated in the life and health insurance market. In early 2004, Discovery had come up with an idea for an investment product that was a paradigm shift away from what was currently offered in the market and Dippenaar believed it had huge potential. The immediate question was whether to allow Discovery to proceed with its new product, as it would compete directly with the products offered by Momentum. The real issue was that FirstRand had two horses in one race, and he wondered whether the current situation was sustainable. Wits Business School 305-425-1 South Africa
LEISURENET: AN UNFIT EMPIRE On the evening of 6 October 2002 'Mr Fix-It', Peter Flack, a Partner in Coronation FRM, a firm of corporate turnaround specialists, was preparing for his testimony at the hearing into the collapse of LeisureNet, a company with the majority of its interests in the fitness industry, and he wanted to prepare properly for the next day. LeisureNet had been placed under provisional liquidation exactly two years ago, with contingent liabilities of almost Rand 1 billion. Flack, in his capacity as acting CEO (Chief Executive Officer) at the time, had been involved in making that final decision to close down the company - a decision that had a ripple effect on the lives of thousands of people. At the time, it was the biggest corporate crash ever in South Africa. The question of what exactly had gone wrong at LeisureNet was certain to be raised the next day at the hearing. Coronation FRM believed that every organisation required four basic ingredients for success: (1) leadership; (2) a strategic plan; (3) a management team capable of implementing the strategic plan; and (4) an action plan which broke the strategic plan down into measurable bits. On the face of it these ingredients appeared to be in place in LeisureNet's heyday, but were they really? Wits Business School 704-066-1 South Africa
LETLAPA PLATES: AT A CROSSROADS It was 12 January 2004 and Barry Berman's year had just got off to an awful start. Berman was MD of Letlapa Plates, which in 2000, had won a three-year contract from the Gauteng Department of Transport and Public Works (Gauteng DOT) to market personalised registration numbers (PRNs) in the province. The Gauteng DOT was his major client. He had a smaller operation in the Western Cape that marketed PRNs independently of the provincial government there, but his business in Johannesburg was the real money generator. Berman had returned from a relaxing holiday at the coast to find a letter from the Gauteng DOT waiting on his desk. His contract had expired in November the previous year, said the letter and the Gauteng DOT was not going to extend his contract. Berman stared at the letter, his heart sinking. What would happen to his business? Indeed, did he have a business anymore? Would he have to cut his losses now and shut up shop, or could he do anything to ensure that he still had a business? Wits Business School 804-036-1 South Africa
MAANDA MANYATSHE: A SOUTH AFRICAN POSTAL REVOLUTION Maanda Manyatshe, Chief Executive Officer of the South African Post Office, put the phone back in its cradle. He had just been speaking to a few of his prospective colleagues at MTN South Africa, the cellular network company he would soon be joining. MTN South Africa was the second largest cellular operator in the country. He would be tasked with growing the South African operation. It was only one of a number of offers he had received, and it was not the most attractive package he had been offered. But, as he prepared to continue discussing the launch of several new electronic mail products, he wondered whether he had made the right choice. Wits Business School 305-422-1 South Africa
MASSMART BEYOND MARK LAMBERTI Under Mark Lamberti's leadership, mass retailer, Massmart's turnover had exceeded 20 billion rand in turnover for the first time in its history in 2004. It had a watershed year in terms of numbers as no mass merchant in the history of South Africa had achieved the return on sales that Massmart had in that year. Lamberti had been at the helm of Massmart since he founded the company in 1990. But now, bearing in mind his desire not to renew his employment contract as Chief Executive Officer when it expired in 2007, Lamberti was concerned about how to facilitate a seamless leadership transition while retaining the talent and maintaining the motivation of his exceptional management team. Wits Business School 305-423-1 South Africa
METERMATIC LIMITED: MBO OR NO MBO? Piet Malan, CEO of Metermatic, received a phone call from the private equity company he had approached to help him with a potential management buyout (MBO) of Metermatic from its parent, SAFREN. Equis Private Investment needed a commitment from Malan and wanted to firm up on the deal price and its share of the equity. Malan's management team, particularly the sales manager, were very keen to take management control of Metermatic, but Malan was more cautious. He was worried about the risk of the high levels of debt that Metermatic would have to sustain and the fact that Equis wanted him and the management team to put up some of the equity. He knew this would call for each of them to increase the size of their mortgage bonds and that it would put a great strain on Metermatic's cash flow over the next few years. Yet this was a rare opportunity. Metermatic did not fit into SAFREN's strategic vision. At least this was the impression that Malan and his management team were given whenever they met with the rest of the group. It was too small to warrant much attention within the SAFREN group. Malan was concerned that Metermatic was not able to take advantage of investment opportunities. Capital expenditure was rarely allocated to the division, a source of frustration to Metermatic executives, and Malan felt that he might be better able to retain his senior management team if they felt they 'owned' a significant share of their own company and raised additional capital for growth. Consequently, a private equity-financed MBO looked attractive. Of course, he still needed to discuss the proposal with SAFREN. He was not sure how they would respond. Wits Business School 104-067-1 South Africa
MOBILE TELEPHONY IN AFRICA: CELTEL INTERNATIONAL'S GROWTH STRATEGIES By the end of the fiscal year 2004, Celtel International BV, one of the largest mobile operators in Africa, reported a profit of US$147 million against US$74 million in the previous year. In early 2005, Celtel became a subsidiary of Mobile Telecommunications Company (MTC), a Kuwait based communications company with operations in 18 countries. Celtel, with its operations in 13 countries in Central and West Africa, intends to expand its operations across the continent by leveraging on its brand image. The case study highlights the strategies adopted by Celtel International to transform itself into a leading telecommunications provider in Africa. Wits Business School 305-285-1 South Africa
NAMITECH: IN THE IS SECURITY WAR ZONE William Wilsnagh, Business Unit Director of Technology Services at NamITech, reflected on a rather alarming incident that had just occurred at one of NamITech's clients. A virus had hit the the client's network, resulting in downtime of a full day. The virus was still lurking, although NamITech had got the system back up and running. NamITech had won this client a year previously, in November 2002, after a year-long tender process. In addressing the virus attack, NamITech had fulfilled all of its responsibilities as specified in its service level agreement and the client's IS (information systems) security had improved greatly. But, for Wilsnagh, the incident highlighted the need to extend the scope of NamITech's services. Information systems security was all about ensuring the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information. Although viruses were the high-profile enemies in the IS security war, he knew that there was more to it than virus detection, prevention and elimination. He just needed to apply his mind to identifying potential risks and ways of addressing them. Wits Business School 904-052-1 South Africa
NANDO'S INTERNATIONAL: FLYING HIGH WITH A GLOBAL CHICKEN BRAND Josi McKenzie, Marketing Director of fast food chain, Nando's International, considered the development of Nando's International since she had joined the company in June 1992, when there were 12 stores in South Africa, and international exposure was limited to Australia and the United Kingdom. The company had performed extremely well once again in 2003, with the result that Nando's had more than trebled its number of stores over the 16 years since inception. By the end of 2003, there were a total of 450 stores throughout the world, 186 of them being in South Africa. McKenzie felt good about this record, especially because the group had managed to improve market share in an extremely competitive industry and a volatile global economy. However, she felt that there was enough potential in the company to perform even better on a global basis in 2004. Since 1997, when 27% of Nando's stores were located in international markets, that figure had grown to almost 60% by the end of 2003. Nando's ascribed this success to two strategic approaches. Firstly, it had latterly focused on a 'hubbing' growth strategy as opposed to a 'shotgun' strategy. This meant that the company had concentrated on developing existing geographic regions, chiefly the Middle East and Asia, instead of taking any opportunity that presented itself. Secondly, it had placed a greater emphasis on the correct positioning of the Nando's brand in each of its international markets. The critical issue up for debate for 2004 was 'which hub should be developed next'? Wits Business School 304-272-1 South Africa
NEDCOR TREASURIES INTEGRATION: GOOD FORTUNE OR GOOD PROCESS? It was July 2003. Dr Izak Botha, head of the merger and integration committee of banking group, Nedcor (Nedcor M&R), finished reading the report that the treasury integration steering committee had produced on the integration of the group's treasury operations. In July the previous year Nedcor had purchased BOE, the sixth largest bank in South Africa, and Nedcor had decided to use this purchase as an opportunity, not only to integrate BOE into Nedcor, but also two other banks that had operated within the group, Nedbank Investment Bank (NIB) and Cape of Good Hope Bank (CoGH). The treasury integration had been a very risky operation. If it had failed, it could have brought down the bank or had widespread ramifications for the treasury market as a whole. The treasury appeared to have achieved the impossible: a complex integration in record time, with no fall-out for the bank. At times over the past few months, Botha and the board of Nedcor had felt that, in typical fashion, the treasury was trying to do its own thing and was placing the bank at tremendous risk as a result. Nedcor M&R had had to restrain the treasury integration team on a couple of occasions, but they had done it. The treasury was the first division in the bank to have completed its integration - save for some minor archiving of information that was still outstanding. The rest of the group's integration process was still under way and would probably only be finished at the end of 2004. Was there anything that the other divisions in the bank could learn from the integration experience at the treasury? How much of what the division had achieved had been good judgment and how much had simply been good luck? Wits Business School 404-046-1 South Africa
PICK 'N PAY EXTORTION CRISIS: PRODUCT TAMPERER CONFRONTS CONSUMER FRIEND (PART A) This is the first of a two-case series (304-587-1 and 304-588-1). Part (A) is set on the morning of 13 May 2003, when Sean Summers, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Pick 'n Pay, one of South Africa's largest supermarket chains, received a registered parcel containing three items of food and a letter. The letter said that these items had been poisoned and that, unless Pick 'n Pay co-operated and paid over a sum of money, the author would put poisoned food items on Pick 'n Pay shelves. The extortionist warned Pick 'n Pay against informing the police or the press, saying that he would put contaminated food into Pick 'n Pay stores if this happened. Summers had been with the group for 32 years and this kind of thing had not happened to Pick 'n Pay before. What should he do? Part (B) is set seven weeks subsequent to the first threat, after it appeared that the extortionist had actually put contaminated food in one of Pick 'n Pay's stores. Pick 'n Pay had contacted the police for advice, but had kept the matter from the press, confident that the extortionist would not harm its customers. Now it appeared that his strategy had changed. What should Summers do now? Wits Business School 304-587-1 South Africa
PICK 'N PAY EXTORTION CRISIS: PRODUCT TAMPERER CONFRONTS CONSUMER FRIEND (PART B) This is the second of a two-case series (304-587-1 and 304-588-1). Part (A) is set on the morning of 13 May 2003, when Sean Summers, Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Pick 'n Pay, one of South Africa's largest supermarket chains, received a registered parcel containing three items of food and a letter. The letter said that these items had been poisoned and that, unless Pick 'n Pay co-operated and paid over a sum of money, the author would put poisoned food items on Pick 'n Pay shelves. The extortionist warned Pick 'n Pay against informing the police or the press, saying that he would put contaminated food into Pick 'n Pay stores if this happened. Summers had been with the group for 32 years and this kind of thing had not happened to Pick 'n Pay before. What should he do? Part (B) is set seven weeks subsequent to the first threat, after it appeared that the extortionist had actually put contaminated food in one of Pick 'n Pay's stores. Pick 'n Pay had contacted the police for advice, but had kept the matter from the press, confident that the extortionist would not harm its customers. Now it appeared that his strategy had changed. What should Summers do now? Wits Business School 304-588-1 South Africa
PRAVIN GORDHAN: MASTER JUGGLER Pravin Gordhan, Commissioner of the South African Revenue Services (SARS), had managed to improve tax collection substantially over his six years of office, whilst also managing to keep changing the institution internally. He was proud of the leadership role he had played in making such a complex public organisation operate efficiently. He knew, however, that large organisations increasingly perceived SARS to be overplaying its hand. In his view the key to improving the level of tax compliance – which was only at the 50% mark – was to enhance mutual trust, but he wondered what was the most effective way of doing this. Wits Business School 305-419-1 South Africa
PRETORIA PORTLAND CEMENT: ENGINEERING HR (PART A) This is the first of a two-case series (404-108-1 and 404-109-1). In February 2000, the Kambuku team of Pretoria Portland Cement (PPC) got together in the Kambuku 'war room' to plan the way forward for the project. Most of them were engineers by profession. Some of them were factory managers. Theirs was very much a line management orientation, yet Rod Burn, PPC's Director of organisational performance, had appointed them to work on what they would normally have regarded as the responsibility of the human resources department - finding a way to get more out of PPC's people so that the company could reach the taxing cash flow targets that Chief Operating Officer (COO) John Blackbeard had set. PPC's performance over the preceding five years had been dismal and the company was feeling the heat of competition from two major international competitors. Achieving the turnaround targets set by Blackbeard would not be possible without the buy-in of the people. Burn had asked the Kambuku team to design a system that would have this as the output. But what were the components of this system? Their credibility was on the line. When this was over, they had to go back to their factories with their reputations intact. They were in foreign territory, but they could not afford to fail. Wits Business School 404-108-1 South Africa
QUADREM: E-PROCUREMENT FOR THE MINING INDUSTRY By 2003, Quadrem, a global e-marketplace that facilitated electronic transactions between buyers and suppliers from the mining, metals and minerals industry, was in its third year of operation. While some of the regions such as North America, Australasia and South Africa managed to operate profitably on a regional level, Quadrem as a whole was not yet profitable mainly because of its high fixed centralised costs. The shareholders however, expected Quadrem to break even by the end of the second quarter in 2004. The case study revolves around Quadrem Africa, based in South Africa, and its dilemma to increase its growth to help Quadrem break even globally. Wits Business School 904-020-1 South Africa
SA HOME LOANS: BANK BASHING IS GOOD FOR BUSINESS Simon Stockley, SA Home Loans' CEO, was a lawyer by education but an entrepreneur by nature; his colourful, non-conformist socks epitomised his character. The first person in South Africa to build a business based around the concept of securitisation, it had taken him just five years to break into South Africa's capital market and take on South Africa's major banking institutions. He had gained approximately 11% market share for new mortgage bonds (estimated to be worth R500 million per month), 3% of South Africa's estimated R258 billion total mortgage market and forced the banking institutions to change their home loan finance modus operandi in response to his competition. Despite these achievements he was dreading the upcoming board meeting - he could predict the question that would be asked; the question for which he, as yet, had no sure answer. At the end of the board meeting Laurence Rapp, director of strategic investments and alliances, Standard Bank, would ask, 'So Simon, what is your next BHAG?' Wits Business School 804-037-1 South Africa
SALIENT FEATURES OF A MANAGEMENT BUYOUT (MBO) Background note A management buyout (MBO) involves the purchase of an existing business by its senior management team. It has proved itself to be an attractive vehicle for management, who can accumulate wealth in the form of an equity participation in their company. This note looks at salient features of MBOs, such as how they are structured and financed, and how equity is allocated. It also examines how to evaluate an MBO candidate to gauge whether it has potential for success. Wits Business School 104-068-5 South Africa
SOUTH AFRICA'S WAR OVER SCRAP ALUMINIUM It was 15 February 2004 and Gerhard Nicolaus, Director, metals and allied industries in the South African Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), was preparing for a meeting of the stakeholders in the scrap metal industry that was going to take place the next day. The meeting was the culmination of three years of sometimes acrimonious discussion and negotiation between the rival parties. Since 2001, local purchasers of recycled aluminium had expressed concern that the prices of secondary aluminium in South Africa (SA) were inflated and that scrap was being exported at the expense of local demand. In 2003, the various trade associations in the secondary aluminium processing industry had persuaded the South African (SA) government to change its policy and on 30 May 2003, the minister of trade and industry, Alec Erwin, signed into effect a new policy on the issuing of export permits for scrap metal. In short, this policy prohibited the granting of export permits for specific classes of scrap, forcing the scrap metal merchants to supply scrap to the domestic industry first. This change in policy effectively meant that the scrap metal merchants feared a possible cutback in profitability. Countries globally had been more than willing to pay premium prices for South Africa's scrap aluminium and, in recent years, the export of scrap had evolved into a very lucrative business. The scrap merchants had protested vociferously and implementation of the policy was delayed. Nine months had passed since the change in policy and it had now become critical for the secondary smelters and the scrap metal merchants to reach consensus on a suitable way to implement the policy. Nicolaus's main objective was to maximise beneficiation in South Africa and he believed that the new policy should be self- regulated by the industry. He would much rather that the industry solved its own problems than for the DTI to have to step in and enforce the new policy - a certain possibility if consensus could not be reached. But how could a win-win scenario be brought about for all the parties? This was the question that plagued Nicolaus's thoughts as he prepared for the meeting. Wits Business School 204-106-1 South Africa
THE JOHANNESBURG HOSPITAL: OF OATHS AND OPPORTUNITY COSTS It was a Sunday evening in March 2004 and Sagie Pillay, Chief Executive Officer of the Johannesburg Hospital, was reflecting on the progress he had made since his appointment in 2000. He had been instrumental in crafting the hospital strategy project for the National Department of Health. He had been appointed to transform the Johannesburg Hospital in accordance with this strategy. Now, in 2004, he was as supportive of health and public sector policies as he had been when he took over as CEO, but had experienced the reality of implementation. Every decision was a balancing act between the priorities of the national and provincial governments, health policy, accountability for public funds, constitutional rights and providing the best possible care for each patient. In addition, he was confronted daily with public service organisational culture, a shrinking budget allocation and the increasing number of South Africans being driven from private health care to the more affordable public health care facilities. He had made some progress, but it had been an uphill battle. How could he or any future CEO take the hospital forward and achieve the goals of a National Health System? Wits Business School 305-426.1 South Africa
THE MARGINAL PERFORMER It was that time of year again, performance appraisal and salary review time. Nadia Strom, the new branch manager at the Pentlands branch of Barrows Bank, had one of her most difficult appraisals coming up the next day. The performance of branch accountant, Michael Nyageri, was not up to standard and was affecting the overall performance of the branch. She had to decide how to handle the appraisal and how to map a way forward with him towards improved performance. Wits Business School 404-031-1 South Africa
VODACOM CUSTOMER CARE Vodacom Customer Care provided an extensive training programme for new call centre employees. It had also made an effort to ensure that the work environment at its various call centres was pleasant with modern amenities. The company provided its staff with sophisticated back-up systems such as an on-line knowledge base nick-named 'The Chad' that kept them abreast of the many developments relating to Vodacom products. Performance of call centre agents was measured against a detailed bonus calculator system. In October 2002, the number of calls handled by each call centre agent was added to the list of criteria against which performance of call centre agents was measured. This had prompted a change in the relative weighting of each of the factors that contributed to the final bonus calculation. Ibeth Toerien, Executive Director Customer Care at Vodacom (Pty) Ltd, and Lori Kasselman, Vodacom's executive head: capacity building and development, reflected on whether it had been worthwhile adding quantity of calls handled to the bonus calculator. They debated whether it achieved the desired balance between quantitative and qualitative measures. Wits Business School 404-032-1 South Africa
WENDY LUCAS-BULL: MAKING A DIFFERENCE Wendy Lucas-Bull's career was taking an entirely new direction. She had spent the last 10 years working in various capacities for FirstRand, one of South Africa's largest financial services groups – most recently as chief executive officer of the group's retail financial services businesses. As such, she had been responsible for the biggest division within the FirstRand banking group. Now, in October 2004, she had decided to branch off on her own and to apply her skills to making a difference in South African society through a threefold process of (1) fostering partnerships between business, government and civil society; (2) advocacy amongst business people in regard to developing sustainable businesses; and (3) advocacy around using black economic empowerment as a means of achieving business sustainability. Lucas-Bull thought the timing was right: South Africa was experiencing a new patriotism, as well as growing business confidence, which would make people more open to her ideas. But would she succeed in achieving her vision? Wits Business School 205-095-1 South Africa
WENDY LUHABE: ON THE BOARDWALK Wendy Luhabe, who had been voted 'South Africa's most powerful business woman measured in terms of influence, not wealth' by one of South Africa's most respected business magazines, considered the latest offer she had received to chair the board of one of South Africa's largest organisations. It was September 2004 and, since her first board appointment in 1996, she had served on several boards of directors – including boards of some of the biggest companies in the country. By 2004, she chaired the boards of six companies, and sat on the board of another. Luhabe was acutely aware of the enormous and increasing corporate governance challenges that were now faced by board members. Her workload was already quite heavy, but, at the same time, she might be able to make a contribution and share her experience in the position of chair of this board. Should she accept the offer? Wits Business School 805-053-1 South Africa
Bruce Roberts ar Rand Merchant Bank Bruce Clarke, a talented structured finance professional, is achieving great financial results but ignoring the cultural niceties and the values of his employer, Rand Merchant Bank. RMB has developed a very successful culture, winning the Best Company to Work For award in 2000 and Bruce Clarke's behavior is the cause of unhappiness amongst his colleagues and subordinates. His manager, Matthew Thompson, is impressed with his results and performance, but concerned about his colleagues reaction to Clarke's behavior. The case describes the culture of RMB; how it has been built and nurtured over the years, and the role that organizational culture can play in attracting talent in the highly competitive investment banking environment. The case raises several questions: How important is RMB's culture in attracting talented individuals? Are the espoused values practiced? Are the values in conflict? Is it possible to be "soft on people but hard on results"? How did the situation arise? A recruitment problem? A management problem? How should Matthew Thompson deal with the matter? Can it be ignored? What if Clarke decides to leave? An 18 minute video describes and illustrates the culture and values of RMB. Wits Business School WBS 2002-8 or WBS 2002 -8TN South Africa
AMAZON.COM: FROM STARTUP TO THE NEW MILLENNIUM This case analyses the growth of from 1994 to 1999. It provides an ideal case on emerging e-commerce strategies and strategic thinking because of its first mover development and prominence, its accelerated growth and its recent and rapid emergence. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 300-014-1 or 300-014-8 (19pp) South Africa
BROKEN HILL PROPRIETARY (BHP) COMPANY LIMITED: TURNAROUND STRATEGY This case describes a very recent turnaround. It discusses the symptoms and causes of decline and takes the students through the different stages of a turnaround. The case provides a backdrop to the resources industry and shows how sensitive the industry. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 300-025-1 or 300-025-8 (16pp) South Africa
DOCOMO'S I-MODE: STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS This case is the story of i-mode, the remarkably successful wireless Internet service provided by NTT DoCoMo, a mobile phone company in Japan. In a period of less than 14 months, over 10 million subscribers were signed up and after 18 months subscribers... University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 501-050-1 or 501-050-8 (13pp) South Africa
DOCOMO'S I-MODE: STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS LITERATURE REVIEW Supplement For abstract, setting and topics, please refer to the case 'DoCoMo's i-mode: Strategies for Success' (501-050-1). University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 501-050-4 or 501-050-8 (13pp) South Africa
DRKOOP.COM: COMPETITIVE POSITIONING IN THE AMERICAN E-HEALTH SECTOR The case study highlights the strategic challenges facing the American e-health sector. The case emphasises how companies devise electronic commerce strategies to create competitive advantage. It looks at how industry actors, both incumbents and new entrants. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 300-013-1 or 300-013-8 (20pp) South Africa
GUTAID - SOUTH AFRICA PART I Gutaid is a product which, after successful life cycles in both the U.S. and the U.K., is launched in South Africa. Despite data suggesting the contrary, executives proceed with the launch only to have the product fail later. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 487-002-1 South Africa
PICK 'N PAY - REKINDLING COMPANY VALUES This case study discusses a rekindling of a company's values within a retailing company that has grown from 4 stores and 50 employees in 1967 to some 265 stores and around 28,000 staff in 1998. These values, such as supremacy of the customer, are based up. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 399-090-1 South Africa
SAPPI LIMITED - A SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANY GOING GLOBAL The case study enables students to study the globalisation strategy of a pulp and paper manufacturer. It discusses the global pulp and paper industry and chronicles the development of this industry in South Africa between 1920 and 1998. The case also chro.... University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 399-021-1 or 399-021-8 (25pp) South Africa
SUDDEN DEATH INSURANCE COMPANY This case focuses on various issues faced by a young MBA in his first job out of business school. Issues of suspected or rumoured bribery of a superior provide a backdrop for discussions on mentor relationships and first track careers. University of Cape Town (UCT) 487-003-1 or 487-003-8 (2pp) South Africa
THAWTE CONSULTING (PTY) LIMITED: BECOMING A GLOBAL PLAYER IN THE DIGITAL CERTIFICATE INDUSTRY 1995-1999 Thawte Consulting (PTY) Ltd began in December 1995 as a one-man operation. In less than four years, it had grown to capture over 40% of the global market share in Digital Certificates used for security authentication over the Internet. It has offices in Africa. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 300-012-1 or 300-012-8 (26pp) South Africa
THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY This case illustrates the problems of introducing newcomers to a laboratory team in the textile industry. Maintaining motivation among the established members of the organisation when the newcomers lack fundamental skills is linked to the problem of self. University of Cape Town (UCT) Graduate School of Business 487-004-1 South Africa
Alpha Medical Manufacturers Ltd. Alpha Medical Manufacturers Limited is a manufacturer of high quality single use disposable syringes for both the local and export markets in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. The company is facing major business challenges characterized by stiff competition from cheap imported syringes, rising energy costs, and low productivity. However, the biggest challenge facing Alpha is the frequent breakdown of a crucial blister packaging machine, which had seriously affected the efficiency, and effectiveness of the company. The CEO is pondering whether it is time to invest in additional machines and equipment in order to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the company, or whether to abandon manufacturing of syringes and change the business focus to importation and distribution of imported disposable syringes. The Alpha case highlights the Pharmaceutical industry in Kenya as well as Competition in the Syringe Manufacturing Sector in Kenya. United States International University (USIU) 606-023-1 Kenya
Biz Commodities Ltd. In August 2005, Charles Muraguri and Henry Mwaniki, the owner managers of Biz Commodities, located in Nairobi's Lavington area, were preparing to ship the first container of coffee to the United States. Although they had been in business since August 2003, this was the first time Muraguri and Mwaniki were trading in coffee internationally. In the previous two years, Biz Commodities had been involved in international trade of various items like computers and leathers seats. Muraguri and Mwaniki had been importing computers from the U.S. and leather seats from Europe for the Kenyan market. However, after reviewing the viability of the business, they had decided to trade in the coffee and tea industry. Aside from the cartels involved in international coffee trade, and the volatile prices on the London and New York Futures Markets, the main question for Muraguri and Mwaniki was whether this was a viable and profBizble business venture. Strathmore Business School 806-066-1 Kenya
John Mathenge: Hazina Service Masters On 20 January 2004, John Mathenge, 30 years old, was invited by his uncle, Peter Wachira, to join him at Hazina Services Masters as a partner. He accepted the challenge. Each partner was to be responsible for hiring and paying his own employees. Without good work experience and having never been an employer, he wondered about handling employee affairs. Wachira had been in a partnership business with Robert Gikonyo at Haki Fine Services Masters, since 1980. According to Mathenge his uncle's business was doing well enough to enable the business to offer him a job as a trainee at a salary of KShs 3000 per month. However, he was never paid this salary at any one point. He quit the job in February 2003. Strathmore Business School 806-071-1 Kenya
Joyfred Limited In June 2005, Mrs Joy Muthuri, a retired senior educationist and the Chief Executive Officer of Joyfred Company Limited was considering what she should do to make her businesses more manageable as a result of diversification. She operated the family business with eight full time employees. While still employed, she started the business with a girl's hostel in 1998. When she realized that the hostel business was not profitable due to competition, she opened up a restaurant with outside catering services in April 2003. To increase her market share, in April 2005, she started a fast food Kiosk located about three Kilometers away from her restaurant. Although the three businesses were doing reasonably well financially, she faced management challenges and stiff competition and wondered what she should do. Strathmore Business School 306-611-1 Kenya
LawAfrica (A) In October 2000, Maina Waweru, the CEO of LawAfrica, and Chief of Operations Katarina Juma, were on the horns of a dilemma. Despite their success in locating, photocopying and digitizing most of the court cases in secret, LawAfrica faced significant challenges. The business was not generating any revenue because the on-line product was not ready. It was suffering from a major setback because of an intensified disagreement with their website developer. At this point, they had to make a very critical decision in their professional careers. Maina had just finished his three months unpaid-leave at Great Advocates. He had to give an answer to Thomas Cook, who was a senior partner of the law firm, whether to come back with the prospect of growing in the firm, or to quit with no chance of coming back and go full time with LawAfrica which was not making any money. Katarina, who on the other hand, had quit her job at Prime Advocates when Maina took his three-months leave, was also contemplating her options. Strathmore Business School 806-077-1 Kenya
Quality Girls' Hostel On 15 March 2005, Maryanne Ratiro, owner of Quality Girls' Hostel was reviewing the overall situation in the Quality Girls' Hostel. She wondered what action plans, if any should she design and implement in preparation for the following academic year, July to October, 2005, of Strathmore University, the biggest institution from where her student residents came. Quality Girls' Hostel business is situated in Nairobi West estate in Nairobi. Strathmore Business School 806-068-1 Kenya
Safiri Salama Car Hire Company Started in February 2002, and located in Nairobi's Industrial Area, Safiri Salama Car Hire Company had been a growing car hire business. It was registered as a limited liability company and owned by two shareholders, Hudson Macharia and Stephen Njoroge. In July 2005 the shareholders of Safiri Salama Car Hire were considering the possibility of purchasing their own vehicles rather than subcontracting vehicles and then hiring them to clients. They considered owning their vehicles to be a more financially viable business option. Other dilemmas facing Macharia and Njoroge were whether they should consider market segmentation by product, where they would own a range of different types of vehicles to include 4WD and vans. They were also considering how they could improve on their competitiveness in the light of competition from other more established companies. Strathmore Business School 806-067-1 Kenya
Shaaban Juma & Associates and Style Software E.A. (Ltd.): The Power of Two On 2nd January 2004 Mr. Shaaban Juma the proprietor of Shaaban Juma and Associates, Certified Public Accountants and Mr. Sammy Muthee, the Managing Director of Style Soft ltd, a computer software supply firm, were considering the possibility of setting up an alliance between the two firms. After giving it some thought, they were asking themselves a few questions. Among them if there were enough reasons to form an alliance. If so, how to define the contents of the agreement. That is, what would they do together, and what would each partner continue to do on its own, independently. What would be the rights and duties of each partner? And finally, assuming some sort of an alliance was formed, what kind of criteria could they use, some time into the future, in order to evaluate whether such an alliance had been a success or a failure". Strathmore Business School 306-616-1 Kenya
AES in Nigeria The U.S. energy company AES is in the process of entering the Nigerian market through acquisition of a controlling equity interest in a 270-megawatt power generator project. AES has a unique mode of organization and operation that emphasizes integrity, empowerment, and social responsibility. The Nigerian environment is very different in many dimensions (high levels of corruption, low infrastructure availability, different work ethic, and highly charged politics) from the origins of AES in North America. How does AES juggle its core values and company culture in entering this new environment? How can AES be successful in this environment and remain committed to its core values? Stanford Graduate School of Business IB29 Nigeria
Anglo American (A) In 2001, Dr. Brian Brink, senior vicepresident of Anglo American, a massive South African mining conglomerate, was debating how to confront the ravages that extremely high HIV/AIDS rates were taking on Anglo's workforce and overall productivity. According to the firm's best estimates, 21% of Anglo American's workforce was HIV-positive in 2001. Specifically, Dr. Brink was debating the merits of adding a potentially costly antiretroviral component to the existing HIV/AIDS program. Looks at the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on the Anglo workforce; examines the strategic, cost/benefit, and corporate social responsibility issues involved in offering the antiretroviral drug program to workers; contrasts Anglo's programs with its key competitors; and considers the financial, implementation, and political challenges involved in launching the antiretroviral program. Stanford Graduate School of Business IB30A South Africa
GlaxoSmithKline and AIDS Drugs Policy In Africa, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) confronted the reality of the AIDS crisis every day, and its decisions impacted thousands. There were no ready answers to the crisis, but everyone--governments, nongovernmental organizations, the media, shareholders, and others--had an opinion. GSK had to determine how to address the crisis while maintaining business viability in developing countries in the midst of all the pressures. Throughout the late 1990s, the CEO of GSK, Stanford Graduate School of Business alumnus Dr. Jean-Pierre Garnier, was at the forefront of the controversy over antiretroviral drug pricing, patent protection, and drug access. Proactive in addressing critics, he was seen as the de facto spokesperson for the pharmaceutical industry in addressing these critical issues. He responded to the criticism by speaking out at every opportunity, including writing two letters to the editor of the Financial Times to clarify the industry position on drug pricing, research and development costs, and drug access. These communications set the tone for the company and its worldwide operations. Stanford Graduate School of Business P39 Africa
The Amy Biehl Foundation Trust In February 1999, the Amy Biehl Foundation Trust (ABFT) was preparing to expand its operations outside Cape Town, South Africa. However, their plans were challenged by a strike at the Community Bakery, a mission-driven, revenue-generating enterprise connected to ABFT, and financial irregularities at one of their newest programs, the Parent Teacher Pupil Program. Both incidents threatened to undermine Peter and Linda Biehl's philosophy of identifying and supporting leaders from the South African communities in which ABFT operated. Peter and Linda needed to make decisions on each of these incidents quickly, knowing that they had to balance undermining the initiative and leadership in the community with letting the situations escalate beyond their control. Stanford Graduate School of Business SI01 South Africa
A NEW CITY CHARTER FOR ADDIS ABABA The case discusses the introduction of the city charter in the Municipality of Addis Ababa. The experience considers both the design issues of a city charter and the dynamics of the innovation it can determine. The implications in terms of governance, management and finance are discussed. Different problems in local management are investigated, including the issue of the degree of internal decentralisation that is suitable to the needs of a metropolitan area. Aspects of the national context of Ethiopia are dealt with, so that the case can be discussed also in relation to the management of third world municipalities and not only as a case of co-operation. SDA Bocconi School of Management 305-328-1 Italy
Divesting the Zambian Mining Industry The Zambian government embarked on a divestiture of its mining industry in 1992. However, by July 2004, 67% of the mining assets are still in government hands and the government continues to look for equity partners. Ivey Business School, The University of Western Ontario 904M60 Zambia
KASHIWA TUBING LTD A student at a large Boston-area university would soon be completing a dual degree in Management Information Systems and Business Administration. She is the oldest child and only member of a Japanese family that spoke English and was learning to represent the family business, Kashiwa Tubing, with its international accounts. It was planned that she would eventually assume leadership of the company. During her studies she became a believer in the potential and reach of the Internet. She immediately set up a Web site for the company. Within six months, the Web site generated its first major sale, a $2.5 million order from Saudi Arabia. Recently, she had begun to negotiate a multi-million dollar deal with a Taiwanese firm. The company's Japanese headquarters recently forwarded an inquiry from Nigeria. The inquiry was from a member of the Federal Ministry of Works and Housing, proposed a business transaction that would, if successful, represent the largest single Internet order in the history of Kashiwa Tubing. Believing in personally meeting with customers and building long lasting ties, her father suggests that she should meet with this customer, even if that meant traveling to Nigeria. Ivey Business School, The University of Western Ontario 9B02M014 Nigeria
Larson in Nigeria (Revised) The vice-president of international operations, David Larson, must decide whether to continue to operate or abandon the company's Nigerian joint venture. Despite the Nigerian operation expatriate general manager's pessimistic report, Larson's hunch is to stay in that country. Maintaining the operation is complicated by problems in staffing, complying with a promise to increase the share of local ownership, a joint venture partner with divergent views, and the increasing costs of doing business in Nigeria. If Larson decides to maintain the existing operation, then he must address the issues of increasing local equity participation (i.e., coping with indigenization) and staffing problems (especially in terms of the joint venture general manager). Ivey Business School, The University of Western Ontario 904M12 Nigeria
Akin Akinyemi This case tells of a young manager's career move to another organisation, the reasons for his decision, his first days at work and the difficulties he encountered in an organisational culture not in harmony with his personal values. The objective is to introduce participants to career development and make them aware of the psychological processes involved in starting a new job and settling into it. Lagos Business School 404-036-1 Nigeria
AMANDA'S Amanda's was a subsidiary of Sylvester Investments and involved in the trading of clothes for the fashion-conscious lady executives in Nigeria. In May 2003, Amanda's was faced with the challenges of responding to the faking of their star brand of handbags. The brand name Amanda's had been built over time with limited resources and other challenges. As was the norm in an unregulated market, faking had become a challenge for them. In addition to this, in May 2003, there was an influx of Asian ladies wears - the mainstay of Amanda's business - with representatives of Asian manufacturers setting up shop in Balogun market. Brands that were imitations of her best selling designs were being imported into the country. This case provides opportunities to discuss the challenges of branding and the role of promotions in the marketing mix. It is suitable for use in marketing programmes for owner managers and senior managers in corporations. The background of a developing country with poor development in infrastructure and financial support for small businesses gives the case a special flavour. The problems of faking and regulations are also highlighted. Lagos Business School 505-011-1 Nigeria
ASHAMU GROUP: GUINEA PROJECT Management of a Nigerian trading company is faced with an investment opportunity in Guinea. The project involves the purchase of government-owned gasoline stations and two explosives plants, as well as the opportunity to act as agent for the local refinery. The proposal represents the company's biggest international investment. Lagos Business School 593-066-1 Nigeria
ASSOCIATED BUS COMPANY (A): ABC TRANSPORT 1993-2002 This is the first of a two-case series (805-044-1 and 805-045-1). Frank Nneji, having himself experienced the hardships of travelling by road and the poor quality of private road transport, decided to start ABC Transport. His vision was 'to provide road transport in a comfortable and dignified manner that will make our service an alternative to air transport.' He wanted to revolutionise the transport industry and was ready to break with traditional orthodoxies. In order to sustain its differentiation advantage and to expand its services, ABC needed a good injection of capital. But Frank was finding it difficult and expensive to rely on banking facilities for his working capital. He was considering equity participation as an alternative source of finance. Lagos Business School 805-044-1 Nigeria
ASSOCIATED BUS COMPANY (B): THE DEAL MAKING PROCESS This is the second of a two-case series (805-044-1 and 805-045-1) Frank Nneji, having himself experienced the hardships of travelling by road and the poor quality of private road transport, decided to start ABC Transport. His vision was 'to provide road transport in a comfortable and dignified manner that will make our service an alternative to air transport.' He wanted to revolutionise the transport industry and was ready to break with traditional orthodoxies. In order to sustain its differentiation advantage and to expand its services, ABC needed a good injection of capital. But Frank was finding it difficult and expensive to rely on banking facilities for his working capital. He was considering equity participation as an alternative source of finance. Lagos Business School 805-045-1 Nigeria
CEMENTING THE NATION: WEST AFRICAN PORTLAND CEMENT West African Portland Cement (WAPCO) is at the point of making a decision regarding the replacement of the old kiln at its Ewekoro plant with a new dry process kiln. The aging plant, which was 40 years old, made the running of the plant uneconomical. The unstable economic environment prevailing in Nigeria had led to the closure of six out of the eight cement manufacturers. WAPCO maintained a 60% share of local production, which in turn represented about 20% of the demand of cement in the country. The demand gap induced importation of cement into the country at a price that was lower than the cost of WAPCO's local production. Management had opted for financing the installation of the new kiln, and was expecting that its improved efficiency would yield a return of 20%. The risk however was compensated by the opportunity to capture the huge market of Nigeria and West Africa at large. This case is suitable for discussion in executive programmes. Issues to be discussed are: (1) impact of economic policies; (2) global competition; (3) investment decisions; (4) technology; and (5) managing uncertainty. Lagos Business School 699-018-1 Nigeria
COMPUTECH NIGERIA LIMITED This case relates to the attempts of the leader of a computer/IT business to stimulate his staff to higher commitment and performance and his disappointment at his staff's reaction to various tangible and intangible rewards. The technical note '404-012-6' which is available to accompany the case, presents a synthesis of various motivation theories. Lagos Business School 404-012-1 Nigeria
DRIVING TO THE FUTURE: DUNLOP NIGERIA PLC Against an unstable and harsh economic environment, Dunlop Nigeria had recorded an average real growth of 20% in sales and 11% in asset size. In March 1991 the company had invested in the purchase of 60% of the shares of PAMOL, thus integrating backwards into rubber production, and by 1994 it also acquired 40% equity in Hagemeyer, thus diversifying into the paints industry. Both moves had proved to be successful and profitable. Apparently, however, the stock market did not seem to recognise Dunlop's good performance. Dayo Lawuyi, Dunlop's Managing Director, was considering what steps the management of the company should take to keep the good performance and improve the company's value in the stock market. Lagos Business School 399-137-1 Nigeria
EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATION AT CONTINENTAL PRODUCTS PLC This case describes the circumstances that led to the adoption of briefing sessions for employees at all levels in a manufacturing concern, and how these briefing sessions are conducted. The main objective from the point of view of the HR Director, is to assess the effectiveness of this employee communication system in achieving its purpose; participants are led to ask themselves what this purpose truly is, and to examine the characteristics of good employee communication. Lagos Business School 498-036-1 Nigeria
FIRST BITE LIMITED Tantalizers, a pioneer fast food chain in the Nigerian market, started operations in 1997 with one outlet managed by Bose Ayeni, a former Unilever marketing manager. Encouraged by the success of the first outlet, Folu Ayeni joined his wife Bose and together they pursued a finely-tuned strategy to develop a chain of outlets to provide fast food services to a rapidly increasing market. As Tantalizers kept growing, the Ayenis decided to start First Bite as an independent company to centralise the purchasing of food supplies for all the outlets. First Bite was experiencing the challenge of providing unfailing, timely supplies to a growing number of outlets. Faced with the constraint of meeting the demand for food items from the outlets due to shortage of supplies, particularly chicken, First Bite was considering engaging in farming activities. Aware that the growth of Tantalizers depended on First Bite's ability to source for food items, Ademola Olokuteyi, the Managing Director of First Bite, is facing the dilemma of backward integration. Lagos Business School 805-046-1 Nigeria
FORGING A TEAM CULTURE AT MARATHON BANK Marathon Bank faces the challenge of moving from a civil service to a dynamic private sector culture. The case describes the leader's effort to implant teamwork in the bank. The objectives of the case are: (1) to make participants realise the need to go beyond management fads about teamwork by observing how teamwork requires a favourable organisational culture; and (2) to discover ways of growing a team culture by examining what happened in Marathon Bank and discussing what further action could be taken. A technical note 'Teamwork' (402-008-6) provides an outline on the nature of teams and a literature review on human processes in groups. Lagos Business School 402-008-1 Nigeria
INFORMATION SYSTEMS AT TILES ENTERPRISE (B) This is the first of a two-case series (198-032-1 and 198-033-1). Suitable for a session on Information Economics, it outlines the low profile, building block approach taken by one of the company directors. It illustrates the development of effective Information Systems in a developing country for a largely trading outfit where the investment can at least be justifiable or the relevance of IS difficult to conceptualise. The main objective is for participants to assess the efficiency of the director's past decisions and their impact on company operations, as well as suggest possible future developments for IS within the organisation. Lagos Business School 198-033-1, 198-032-8 Nigeria
LAWBREED LIMITED (PUBLISHERS OF SC REPORT) This short case describes the challenges faced by the publisher of a law report - the judgements of the Supreme Court of Nigeria - in the distribution of his books. The case gives a brief background of the enterprise, the strategies used for distribution and promotion and the various options that are under consideration for distribution. The purpose of this case is to assess the options proposed by the protagonist with a view to recommending a way forward that is not only efficient in reaching out to the targeted professionals but that is also cost effective and able to overcome the challenges of payment collection. This case can be used in classes on entrepreneurship, distribution (channel design and management) and marketing of specialised products. Lagos Business School 503-101-1 Nigeria
MARKETING OF MEDICAL SERVICES IN NIGERIA The note reviews the challenges facing medical and allied medical practitioners in marketing their services in the Nigerian business environment. The regulatory and non-regulatory challenges are explored. Suggestions are made on how marketing can be relevant in ensuring sustainable medical and paramedical businesses in an ethical manner. It suggests ways of developing strategy and a marketing plan suitable for entrepreneurs in this industry. Lagos Business School 505-013-6 Nigeria
MASSEY STREET CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL Guaranty Trust Bank Plc, a highly successful Nigerian indigenous 'new generation bank', decided in 1996 to devote 2% of its profit before tax to corporate donations and to concentrate its giving for several years on a single project: the rehabilitation of a State-owned children's hospital in Lagos. The case describes the antecedents of this decision and the early stages of implementation. Some data is provided on the corporate giving policies of other companies which operate in Nigeria. The case affords an opportunity to discuss corporate giving vis-a-vis a firm's responsibilities towards its shareholders in a developing country context. Lagos Business School 398-167-1 Nigeria
MAY AND BAKER IN THE MILLENNIUM This case presents opportunities to discuss issues of distribution strategies and sales force organisation. May and Baker was undergoing a business process re-engineering project geared at improving its financial performance and competitiveness in the Nigerian pharmaceutical industry. The case presents the major issues facing the project team and the management of the company in deciding what changes to make in the sales and marketing department and how to make them. Lagos Business School 502-043-1 Nigeria
PERSONNEL POLICIES AT PARAGON MERCHANT BANK PLC This is the first of a two-case series (498-037-1 and 498-038-1). The case is useful for a Strategy course or a HR Management course. The main objective of Part (I) is to examine the fit between the HR strategy and the business strategy. The objective of Part (II) is to get participants to critically evaluate Paragon's personnel policies, discuss their likely impact on performance and work on revising the policies. Lagos Business School 498-037-1 Nigeria
PHIL CHAN (A) The case deals with a scam that has been run out of Nigeria since 1990. In it, foreign companies are approached for their assistance in facilitating an international transfer of funds in order to receive a very large but unearned commission. In the case, a Hong Kong-based manager who is travelling to Nigeria is unaware that he is walking into a situation where his company is about to be cheated. The objective of the case is to raise the issue of ethics in the conduct of international business. A follow-up case (9A98M023) is available. Lagos Business School 9A98M022 Nigeria
RUFF 'N' TUMBLE Ruff 'n' Tumble had definitely come a long way since Nike Ogunlesi, Ruff 'n' Tumble's founder, started out making pyjamas for her children. It had taken years of hard work to build a reputation for being one of the best manufacturers of children's clothing in the country. She had established a large clientele for her business and she had built a strong brand of quality, creative designs and durable clothes for children. Now, however, there was a new threat to the business, Mothercare, a British children's clothing company, had opened a store in Victoria Island, Lagos, and was carrying out an intensive search for distributors in other parts of the country. Nike had already gone to take a look at their store, and had left with the unsettling feeling that for the first time since she started, Ruff 'n' Tumble was facing serious competition. Lagos Business School 805-043-1 Nigeria
STEW MORRISON'S BUSINESS TRIP TO NIGERIA On his first business trip to Africa, Stew Morrison discovers that sometimes opportunity comes with a cost. The great opportunity he had hoped to capitalise on appeared to offer little in the way of rewards. The case explores the issue of corruption and bribery and poses questions relative to the legality of certain actions. Lagos Business School 704-058-1 Nigeria
TANTALIZERS Tantalizers is a leading company in the emerging fast food industry in Nigeria. The first outlet at Festac was started to keep Bose (Folu's wife) busy. By exploiting her previous work experience, Bose turned the venture into a business. Encouraged by this early success, the Ayeni opened a second outlet in the heart of the Lagos Island and within a year they were setting the stage for the opening of a third outlet in Ikeja, the major industrial area of Lagos. Thus, the Ayeni's family started on their path to Tantalizers' growth. As they transition from the entrepreneurial to the growth stage, the Ayeni experience the challenges associated with the management of growth and the need to define the measures they should take to ensure that they grow at the right pace into the right size. The case is useful to illustrate principles of entrepreneurship, starting new business ventures and managing growth. It is particularly relevant when senior executives in these programmes are entrepreneurs, owners of family businesses or company owners, and are well suited to discuss the transition from the entrepreneurial stage to a professionally managed venture. Lagos Business School 300-080-1 Nigeria
THE BAD FUEL This negotiation case includes the respective briefs of the four parties to the negotiation. Victor Oil imports fuel from Germany into an African country and delivers it to PPMC, the petroleum parastatal corporation. One consignment proves to be substandard and its sale in petrol stations causes widespread damage to people and property. The Environment Protection Agency takes up the matter and all parties concerned meet to assign responsibility and agree on how to repair the damage. A technical note 'Negotiation and Communication' (702-011-6) is available to accompany the case. Lagos Business School 702-011-1 Nigeria
THE MASTER BAKERS: D & D BREAD This is a case that illustrates the management challenges facing many small businesses in a developing economy like Nigeria. The manager and owner is at the point of considering expansion but like many small businesses does not use a comprehensive tool to determine appropriate pricing and other related marketing decisions. Four major players dominate the bread industry in Nigeria. In Nigeria, bread is a staple food that is largely import dependent therefore prone to foreign exchange fluctuations. There is a powerful bread sellers' association that regulates prices of bread sold by the bread sellers who constitutes a dominant share of the channels for bread distribution. The challenges of competing in this environment for a small producer are presented for discussion in this case. The major focus is the pricing challenges. This case illustrates the challenges facing many small businesses in pricing their goods and services effectively. It describes how the business evolved from a passion for bread into a business that is considering expansion but has not yet formalised its processes. It is a comprehensive review of the business with a view to making recommendations on the way forward for growth. It describes the channels for the distribution of bread in Lagos, Nigeria and itemises the costs incurred in production and running the business. This case can be used to teach entrepreneurship, pricing and marketing strategy and planning especially for small business concerns. Lagos Business School 505-010-1 Nigeria
THE PHP MANAGEMENT TEAM (I) This is the first of a three-case series (498-008-1 to 498-010-1). The main teaching objective is to achieve a good understanding of the requirements of team building and team work. The case shows the management team of the Nigerian operation of a worldwide pharmaceutical company at the time of crisis. Part (I) focuses on the team development cycle, team diagnosis and team maintenance/leadership. Part (II) examines a problem solving approach to team conflict and a team building event based on feedback. Part (III) can be simply handed out at the end of the class on Part (II), or be used as background material for a discussion on team vs individual rewards. Lagos Business School 498-008-1 Nigeria
THE RED STAR SPIRIT Red Star is a Nigerian courier company. It has a technical agreement with Federal Express (Fedex), which allows it to use the Fedex trademark. The case provides a short history of the company and a brief presentation of Red Star services. Incorporated in 1992, the company was in a sore state by 1995, with high debts and losses, low staff morale, problems with cash flow and low productivity. A new leadership to turn the company round was ushered in. The case shows what the new Managing Director did as he took over the leadership of the ailing company, and outlines the main elements of his change strategy. The case can be used for a session on the general topic of leadership or the more narrow topic of persuasive communication which is one facet of leadership. Such a session could be part of a module on leadership, on change or on managerial communication. A technical note 'Persuasion' (499-018-6) is available to accompany the case. Lagos Business School 499-018-1 Nigeria
Assured Insurance Brokers In January, 2005, after undertaking an appraisal of both the firm's management and organization systems, the managers of Assured Insurance Brokers realized that the performance had fallen well short of the set benchmarks previously set for organization. These benchmarks were employee and firm based. The employee based benchmarks included; total volume of business, renewal of policies, new Business, and services to clients while the firm based ones included total volume of commission, commissions earned from renewal and those earned from new business. Previously, the firm's key employees worked without clear demarcation of duty, thanks to the founder Ms Rama who worked for the firm as the Managing Director. She, apart from being the principal shareholder also ran the day-to-day functions of the firm despite the expansion path the firm had taken. That management had to make an urgent decision to reverse the previous years' performance, which invariably had implications for the future, was critical to the firm. Kenyatta University (KU) 606-054-1 Kenya
Omu Net In November 2004, Mr. Kebaso, the manager of Omu-net company in Nairobi had to make a major decision. He had been under pressure from the enterprise's director to come up with a new expansion project in order to expand the company's revenue base. He had only one month to submit his recommendations to the proprietor. Kenyatta University (KU) 406-094-1 Kenya
GLAXOSMITHKLINE AND AIDS DRUGS IN SOUTH AFRICA (A): THE FIGHT FOR LIVES AND PROFITS This is the first of a four-case series (IMD-3-1496 to IMD-3-1499). The case describes the interactions among pharmaceutical companies, non- government organisations (NGO's), and governments in the context of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. Oxfam singled out GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) as the target for its new campaign, 'Cut the Cost'. The goal was to hit where it would hurt the most - GSK's share price. At the same time other NGO's also went after GSK. For GSK the situation in South Africa was extremely delicate. The ultimate issues were patent and price protection globally. The pharmaceutical companies were afraid that cheap generic drugs could flood the West, undermining the entire pricing structure and their ability to fund new research. Defending the patents and prices seemed essential. Yet, fighting the NGO's could bring negative publicity and, ultimately, be self-defeating. Meanwhile, millions of people were dying of AIDS in South Africa. International Institute for Management Development (IMD) IMD-3-1496 South Africa
GLAXOSMITHKLINE AND AIDS DRUGS IN SOUTH AFRICA (B): THE SETTLEMENT This is the second of a four-case series (IMD-3-1496 to IMD-3-1499). The (B) part of the series focuses on the outcome of the lawsuit against the South African government. But the demands from the non-government organisations (NGO's) keep on coming and Garnier, the CEO of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), is faced with some tough decisions to make. Should he allow licensing? How should he deal with parallel importation? International Institute for Management Development (IMD) IMD-3-1497 South Africa
GLAXOSMITHKLINE AND AIDS DRUGS IN SOUTH AFRICA (C): THE FIGHT GOES ON This is the third of a four-case series (IMD-3-1496 to IMD-3-1499). The (C) part of the series focuses on the actions GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) had to take after being pressured by the non-government organisations (NGO's). The company had been defeated and it agreed to several licensing agreements and price reductions, but the NGO's are still not satisfied. The topic was also gaining importance in the Western media and the big question now was whether it was starting to become an issue in more developed countries, where the vast majority of GSKs' sales and profits were being made. International Institute for Management Development (IMD) IMD-3-1498 South Africa
GLAXOSMITHKLINE AND AIDS DRUGS IN SOUTH AFRICA (D): US DEVELOPMENTS This is the fourth of a four-case series (IMD-3-1496 to IMD-3-1499). The (D) case focuses on the developments in the US markets. The AIDS drugs issue that had begun in South Africa was beginning to feed a 'perfect storm' in the US and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). International Institute for Management Development (IMD) IMD-3-1499 South Africa
WIPHOLD (A): BEYOND LABOR AND CONSUMPTION This is the first of a four-case series (IMD-1-0220 to IMD-1-0223). This case series documents the incredible journey from 1994 to 2005 of one of the most original black economic empowerment (BEE) vehicles in post-apartheid South Africa, the Women Investment Portfolio Holding (WIPHOLD). WIPHOLD raised its money from disenfranchised black women in the townships to invest in mainstream economic activities. From boutique investment fund, it quickly established itself as one of the key drivers of economic empowerment and one of the movers and shakers in the South African financial services community. The (A) case relates how, between 1994 and 1997, the founders, four dynamic and successful black businesswomen, took their bold vision of black economic empowerment to grassroots women in South Africa. The 'WIP Four' raised money, struck their first deals, gained the women's buy-in, chose an all-women (but mixed race) board and structured the women-only IPO (initial public offering). But the target was ambitious, to raise R40 million from numerous women who were just being introduced to the concept of investment, contributing as little as R600 each (for 200 shares) for their stake. Would they succeed? International Institute for Management Development (IMD) IMD-1-0220 IMD-1-0220-S South Africa
ANGLOGOLD'S GROWTH STRATEGIES AngloGold Limited (AngloGold), with its headquarters in Johannesburg, South Africa, was formed in 1998 through the consolidation of the African gold mines of Anglo American Plc. In 2000, AngloGold forayed into marketing of its gold products like jewellery, by starting its on-line portal, GoldAvenue. Throughout its short history, AngloGold's rapid growth has been characterised by mergers and acquisitions. With its announcement to merge with the Ghana-based Ashanti Goldfields Company Ltd in 2003, AngloGold is poised to become number one in the global gold mining industry. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 304-111-1 India
CLEANING' THE DIAMOND: DE BEERS' FIFTH 'C' De Beers, the world's largest diamond mining and trading company, has been criticised for trading diamonds from the conflict areas in Africa, and thus indirectly supporting the rebel groups in their wars against the legitimate governments, since the 1990s. To clean its tarnished image and rebuild the confidence of its partners, local governments, regulators and civil society organisations as well as the consumers, the diamond giant has taken up certain initiatives, in the early 21st century. This case helps in understanding the issue of 'conflict diamonds' from a socio-economic perspective, and the measures taken by De Beers and the diamond industry to curb the trade in conflict diamonds. The case also provides scope for discussing the Kimberley process certification scheme as a model customer service relations (CSR) initiative, a self-regulatory model for an industry, and a manifestation of the joint endeavours of the business corporations, civil society, governments, and the UN (United Nations). Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 704-062-1 Africa
PC INDUSTRY'S NEXT ONE BILLION CUSTOMERS: EXPLORING THE GROWTH AVENUES The global PC industry was looking for new avenues for growth as its traditional markets matured. Penetration levels in the US PC market as well as other European nations were as high as 60%. The industry behemoths like Dell, Microsoft, IBM and Hewlett Packard believed that developing countries like Brazil, India, China and Russia were the next 'one billion market'. While the companies were tapping the unmet needs and were adapting themselves to the market requirements, several challenges stood in their way to success. The poverty levels, the rigid laws and the language diversity were among others the problems for these multinationals. The case highlights the PC industry's growth strategies in the traditional markets and its entry into emerging markets. The case drives discussion towards the opportunities and challenges in the next 'one billion market' and how the companies were tackling them. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 305-023-1 India
SHANGHAI BAOSTEEL GROUP CORPORATION Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation or Baosteel was set up by the Chinese government near the Shanghai port in 1978, when Deng Xiaoping initiated the transformation of the Chinese economy from a rigid centrally-planned economy to a market-oriented economy. Besides iron and steel, the group also forayed into trade, finance, information, engineering technology, transport, chemicals, real estate and services. Baosteel had 45 wholly-owned subsidiaries with its markets spread over Brazil, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Japan, Russia, Singapore, South Africa and the US. By 1999, Baosteel had become China's largest steel manufacturer. With China's accession to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) in 2001 and the subsequent opening up of the Chinese steel industry to foreign players, Baosteel had to face tough competition in the domestic market as well as in the foreign markets. Despite competition, by 2003 Baosteel increased its production capacity to 20 million tons with a total employee strength of 100,000. However, Baosteel was soon witnessing several problems like increased shipping rates and rises in the price of iron ore in China, due to excess demand and growing domestic competition. The case study would help readers in understanding the challenges that Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation faced and the measures taken up by the company to overcome the challenges. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 304-223-1 India
SHOPRITE: SOUTH AFRICAN RETAILER'S GROWTH STRATEGIES Shoprite Holdings Ltd; Shoprite's Geographical expansion; Horizontal integration; Supermarket industry in South Africa; Shoprite's retail formats; South Africa's formal retail sector; South African Development Community; Retailing in South Africa; Department of Trade and Industry in South Africa; Flood inflation in South Africa; Pick n Pay Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 305-159-1 South Africa
SOUTH AFRICA IN 2004 By far the most prosperous country in the African continent, South Africa, accounts for 45% of sub-Saharan GDP (gross domestic product). Despite the major upheavals following the end of apartheid, the country enjoys a degree of political and social stability that is rare in Africa. During the period 1995-1998, Nelson Mandela had led the country with great statesmanship and maturity. He had spoken loudly in favour of a reconciliation, meeting former apartheid supporters, opposition members, and allies. The remaining international sanctions were lifted, while diplomatic and economic relations abroad were normalised. Mandela's successor, Thabo Mbeki has continued social reforms while liberalising the economy. Among the challenges, which his government faces, are a 30% unemployment rate and rampant crime. More than three million people are afflicted with AIDS (anti immune deficiency syndrome). Black economic empowerment, correcting social imbalances and job creation within the context of fiscal and monetary discipline have been the main objectives of South Africa's economic policy in recent times. The consolidation of democratic processes, which dominated the first five years of African National Congress rule, has given way to a sharper focus on economic issues, specifically growth and job creation. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 204-147-1 India
The South African Car Industry: The Resurgence The South African car industry has always attracted the major car makers in the world since the 1920s. Although the industry managed to overcome the turmoils of the Great Depression and the Second World War, due to the apartheid policy of its government, there was an international boycott of South African trade. After the new democratic government came to power in 1994, the country started taking initiatives to bring back its past glory as the car manufacturing hub of Africa. By the end of 2000, the auto industry was contributing 5.4% to the gross domestic product of South Africa. This case, while narrating the circumstances that led to the downfall of car manufacturing in South Africa, highlights the factors that helped in the resurgence of the South African car industry. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 204-101-1 South Africa
TRANSNET: THE SOUTH AFRICA'S TRANSPORT MONOPOLY For a decade, South Africa's Transnet, enjoyed absolute monopoly of the country's transportation sector. It had control over virtually the entire transportation sector in South Africa. This made the executives of the company lethargic, which led to heightened competition. The company was heading towards a deep financial crisis. The new CEO, Maria Ramos, who strongly believed that, one couldn't have a better tomorrow if one was thinking about yesterday all the time, considered various options to revive the company. This case offers a scope for discussing the problems faced by the large monopolies such as Transnet and the probable revival measures. Institute of Chartered Financial Analyses of India (ICFAI) - Business School Case Development Centre 304-362-1 South Africa
Brazil: Will it Always Be the Country of the Future? This case is a revised edition and replacement for 'Brazil: Will it Always be the 'Country of the Future'?' (399-041-1). This case is in the series on regime change, and serves as a basis for class discussion on the problems of exit from import-substitution, and reform of the 'developmental state'. It may be compared to the cases on Turkey (397-070-1 and 304-483-1), India (204-181-1) and South Africa (193-020-1 and 204-161-1). The teaching objectives include: (1) political, civic, bureaucratic and constitutional conditions for economic policy; (2) distinguishing between structural aspects of a policy, and economic outcomes; (3) assessing probabilities about future orientation; and (4) country risk assessment. INSEAD 304-485-1 Brazil
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD DONATIONS AND THE COST OF NEUTRALITY: LOGISTICS RESPONSE TO THE 2002 FOOD CRISIS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA Set during the 2002 Southern Africa food crisis the case describes the design and implementation of a humanitarian logistics operation for the distribution of food donations in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). This complex operation affected by severe drougths, economic downturn, poor access to recipients and the HIV pandemic, takes an unexpected turn when Zambia rejects the donations upon finding traces of genetically modified organisms (GMO). This forces agencies to redesign their assistance strategy and challenges the ongoing plans with new bottlenecks, costs, and delays. In the end the operations suceeds in light of the co-ordination support provided by the implementing agency, World Food Programme (WFP). The case aims to: (1) discuss the differences between supply chain management in for-profit and humanitarian organisations, and more specifically, the need for agility in supply chain management; (2) analyse the concept of humanitarian space and principles, ie the difficult balancing acts to accomplish a mission while constantly interacting with governments and private sectors; and (3) unravel the ethical issues involved in distributing or offering genetically modified food. INSEAD 604-024-1 Zambia
ECONET WIRELESS ZIMBABWE This is the first of a three-case series (E-0062-E, E-0063-E and E-0066-E). The case outlines the difficulties faced by Strive Masiyiwa in his quest to operate a mobile telecommunications network in Zimbabwe. He refuses to indulge in corrupt practices to get the license to operate the network. He fights the government in the High Court and Supreme Court when it places obstacles in his path. The case highlights the support he receives from many people who are attracted by his ethical values. IESE E-0066-E ET-0002-E Zimbabwe
Aluminum Smelting in South Africa: Alusaf's Hillside Project With prices at all-time lows at the beginning of 1994, South Africa's sole primary aluminum producer--Alusaf--is considering building the world's largest greenfield smelter. Using cost estimates in this case, students can evaluate the relative cost position of this plant in the context of the cost data on other smelters provided in the spreadsheet accompanying "The Aluminum Industry in 1994." By building on the supply and demand analysis supported by that case, students can evaluate the profitability of this massive capital investment. Harvard Business School 9-799-130 South Africa
Alusaf Hillside Project The aluminum industry has suffered from long periods of depressed prices and profits interspersed with relatively short-lived price and profit peaks. The case investigates why, this has occured, focusing on the decision Alusaf must make on whether to invest in a major new facility in the face of depressed aluminum prices. Courseware provides cost data on all the facilities in the industry to develop a supply curve. It also provides a supply and demand model that allows students to investigate: the drivers of average industry profitability and relative profitability of individual players in it; the impact of changes in demand over the economic cycle on the price of metal; the impact of different elasticities of demand on price and profitability; the impact of oligopolistic pricing on industry profitability; the impact of adding capacity on industry profitability; and the ability of a firm to preempt the aluminum market. A rewritten version of an earlier case. Harvard Business School 9-704-458 United States of America
AngloGold: Corporate Responsibility for HIV/AIDS (A) AngloGold, a South African gold-mining corporation, faces a decision to provide its workforce, 30% of which is infected with HIV, with antiretroviral treatment. Harvard Business School 9-303-101 South Africa
ApproTEC Kenya: Technologies to Fight Poverty and Create Wealth ApproTEC markets a range of technologies to improve the income of subsistence farmers and other small-scale entrepreneurs in East Africa. Having achieved considerable success in its first eight years, the two founders/entrepreneurs are seeking ways to scale the impact of its operations across Eastern and Southern Africa. The question is, what should they do to accomplish this? Includes color exhibits. Harvard Business School 9-503-007 East Africa
Botswana: A Diamond in the Rough In the years since independence, tiny, landlocked Botswana has gone from being one of the world's poorest nations to becoming a stable, prosperous state, blessed with the highest sustained growth rate in the world. This case highlights the role that foreign direct investment (FDI) has played in this success, as well as how strong local institutions have helped to harness the benefits that the foreign investor--here, the giant De Beers company--has brought. Also, examines how Botswana was able to avoid the natural resource curse that has haunted so many other resource-abundant countries. Harvard Business School 9-703-027 Botswana
Capital Alliance Private Equity: Creating a Private Equity Leader in Nigeria Describes the creation of the first private equity fund in Nigeria and the fund's potential first investment in GS Telecom, a Nigerian telecommunication service company. The fund's managers are keenly aware that a bad first investment could create a vicious circle for the fund. Thus, whether to invest and under what terms is of crucial importance. Can also be taught as a country case on Nigeria with a focus on entrepreneurship, telecommunications, and venture capital. Harvard Business School 9-800-104 Nigeria
Celtel International: June 2004 (A) Depicts the options facing Mohammed Ibrahim, founder and chairman of Celtel International, the largest pan African wireless telecommunications provider, as he tries to position his company for further growth. Should the firm, which has reached $1 billion in revenues in six years, strive for an IPO, trade a sale, or continue as an independent for a few more years? Outlines the company's success and challenges thus far, the benefits and disadvantages of each option, and future funding possibilities. Harvard Business School 9-805-120 Africa
De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. (A) Describes the problems facing De Beers at the start of 1983. De Beers had, since its formation in 1888, exercised a large measure of control over the world supply of diamonds. In 1983, the company itself mined over 40% of the world's natural diamonds and, through marketing arrangements with other producers, distributed over 70%. For 50 years up to 1983 the company had never lowered its prices and, overall, had raised them significantly ahead of the rate of inflation. However, in 1983 the company was faced with a series of problems that threatened the structure it had so carefully built. First, a large producing nation had stopped selling through De Beers. Second, new discoveries meant that the annual supply of mined diamonds would double by 1986. Finally, the industry was experiencing its worst slump since the 1930s, resulting in a significant deterioration in the company's financial position. Describes the structure and economics of the diamond industry and asks the student to decide whether or not De Beers should abandon the business strategy it had pursued for nearly a century. Harvard Business School 9-391-076
Discovery Health (A) A South African health insurance company undertakes a redesign of its prescription drug coverage policy in light of its experiences with Prozac. Harvard Business School 9-599-046 South Africa
Dragon's Teeth Vineyards Dragon's Teeth Vineyards (DTV) is a South African wine producer that is considering whether to use genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in its wine-making process. GMOs promise to lower the costs of wine production significantly through increased yields and reduced processing times as well as significantly improve the quality of the final product via the use of GM yeasts in fermentation. However, the market acceptance of GMOs is unclear, due to perceived health risks and reactions from traditional "old world" producers who believe the beauty of wine lies in its craft, dependence on local soil and climate, and inherent variability. Harvard Business School 9-604-069 South Africa
E-Hub Nigeria (A) Explores the possibility of launching an e-procurement firm to serve the Nigerian oil and gas sector. Recent HBS graduate, Fola Ogunsiakan, has identified a potential entrepreneurial opportunity, but faces several significant obstacles to success. Considers market analysis, local conditions, the issue of partnering, and business-government relations. Harvard Business School 9-701-066 Nigeria
Fighting AIDS and Pricing Drugs In early 2001, makers of AIDS drugs were suing to prevent developing countries from violating their patents. The issue was driven by price. The developing countries could not afford the market price for these drugs. At the same time, the drug companies were reluctant to sell drugs at or below cost in one country and at 10 to 20 times cost in another country. Using a series of published articles, this case outlines the pressures facing the drug companies and asks the question, "How should they respond?" Harvard Business School 9-502-061 United States of America
Financing the Mozal Project It is June 1997, and a team from the International Finance Corp. (IFC) is recommending that the board approve a $120 million investment in a $1.4 billion aluminum smelter in Mozambique, known as the Mozal project. Four factors make the investment controversial: it would be the IFC's largest investment in the world, total investment is almost the size of Mozambique's gross domestic project (GDP), Mozambique had only recently emerged from 20 years of civil war, and several key contractual issues were still undecided. Because commercial bankers have refused to finance the deal unless the IFC is involved, the sponsors have requested IFC participation. Whether the IFC's board will agree that it is the right time and the right place to make such a large investment remains to be seen. Harvard Business School 9-200-005 Mozambique
Forever: De Beers and U.S. Antitrust Law For over a century, the international diamond market has been dominated by one of the most successful cartels on earth. Run by the legendary De Beers Corp., the cartel has managed to keep diamond prices increasing and to prevent the defection that dooms most other "orderly marketing arrangements." It has also managed to uphold one of the greatest marketing coups of history: convincing millions of customers that diamonds are actually rare and therefore highly prized. There is only one problem for the cartel. It is illegal in the United States (the world's largest market for gem diamonds) and has been under constant attack by the U.S. Justice Department. The case describes how De Beers has dealt with this problem in the past and how, in the late 1990s, changes in the African political situation and the world diamond market may suggest a new relationship with the U.S. government. Harvard Business School 9-700-082 United States of America
Gray Security: Building a South African Services Firm Describes Gray Security Services, an entrepreneurial South African firm that has recently gone through a financial restructuring with the help of Brait Capital Partners, a private equity firm. Gray provides complete security services to companies in South Africa, other African countries, and some parts of Europe. Many of Gray's clients are multinational firms. Gray is currently considering an IPO in South Africa as well as further international expansion. At this point, Dick Aubin, cofounder and chairman of the firm, faces a number of important questions regarding the firm's financing and directions for future growth. Offers an opportunity to analyze the private equity investment by Brait and the prospects of an IPO in South Africa. Also allows for a discussion about strategic choices regarding international expansion by a South African firm during a time of change in South Africa. Harvard Business School 9-800-193 South Africa
Guaranty Trust Bank PLC Nigeria (A) Fola Adeola, the CEO of Nigeria's Guaranty Trust Bank and one of its founders in 1991, is considering what should be done to maintain the bank's original vision and vitality in the face of its rapid growth and success in the marketplace. Known for its high ethical standards, the bank is planning to expand inside and outside Nigeria. Among Adeola's concerns is what to do about employees' insistence on underpaying their personal income taxes--a practice he regards as inconsistent with the bank's mission of being a role model for society. A rewritten version of an earlier case. Harvard Business School 9-399-110 Nigeria
Heineken NV: Workplace HIV/AIDS Programs in Africa (A) (B) C This case is the first in a three-part series that explores the multifaceted organizational and strategic choices that companies now face as a result of the global AIDS epidemic. Heineken is considering becoming one of the first companies to offer AIDS drugs (antiretroviral therapy) to employees and their families. Hans Wesseling, the corporate HR manager, and his colleagues in the medical department must consider the organizational, financial, and social impact of this decision and present a recommendation to the board. Shows how Heineken is responding to the epidemic and considering it as part of the company's corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business School 9-303-063
HIV/AIDS in South Africa--2001, Background Note The ballooning HIV/AIDS rate in South Africa is exacting an increasing toll on the profitability of South African businesses. This note takes a look at the impact of the epidemic at the macroeconomic and business levels, examining the negative macroeconomic repercussions of the disease and how these can impact overall business profitability. Also examines the increased worker costs that the disease incurs (for example, through higher benefit payments, reduced productivity, increased recruitment and training, etc.). Finally, considers potential firm responses to the epidemic, profiling South Africa companies such as JD Group and Eskom, which have taken definitive but very different approaches to dealing with the impact of HIV/AIDS on their businesses. Harvard Business School IB31 South Africa
Houses for Africa Traces the founding and development of Houses for Africa, a firm established to build low-income housing in Zimbabwe. Explores entrepreneurship in an emerging market, the problems that arise when complementary markets do not function well, and the importance of distinguishing transitory opportunities from opportunities to establish first-mover advantage following liberalization. Harvard Business School 9-799-041 Zimbabwe
Life, Death, and Property Rights: The Pharmaceutical Industry Faces AIDS in Africa In the final years of the 20th century, the world was hit by a plague of epidemic proportions--AIDS, a life-threatening disease that remained stubbornly immune to any cure or vaccine. In the developed nations of the West, AIDS was slowly brought under control through a combination of education, prevention, and cutting-edge medicines. But in the developing world, where health care expenditures were often paltry, AIDS continued to rampage. By the year 2000, 25 million people in Africa alone were infected with the disease. Millions had already died. Nearly all of the medicines that treated AIDS had been developed--at great expense--by the major western pharmaceutical firms. These medicines were expensive to produce and often difficult to administer. They demanded levels of income and structures of distribution that often were sorely lacking in the developing world. Increasingly, activist groups were demanding that the pharmaceutical companies respond to the AIDS epidemic with drastic measures, giving their drugs away for free or abandoning the patent rights that had long protected their intellectual property. The pharmaceutical firms needed to respond to their critics. The question was, how? Harvard Business School 9-702-049 Africa
Merck Global Health Initiatives (B): Botswana The case series focuses on Merck's drug donation program and then raises new issues facing management about what to do about HIV/AIDS in Africa given the company's development of a new therapy. Describes collaboration among many parties including the Gates Foundation, other pharmaceutical companies, and the government of Botswana. Harvard Business School 9-301-089 Botswana
Multinational Corporations in Apartheid-era South Africa: The Issue of Reparations Considers the lawsuits filed on behalf of victims of apartheid against multinationals who operated in South Africa prior to 1994. Reviews the debates about divestment from and sanctions against South Africa from the 1950s. Includes case studies of companies that divested--Eastman Kodak and IBM--and stayed--Royal Dutch/Shell and Johnson & Johnson. Concludes with evidence on the use of the Alien Tort Clains Act against corporations in other international contexts Harvard Business School 9-804-027 South Africa
Ocean & Oil Holdings and the Leveraged Buyout of Agip Nigeria (A) In 2001, a Nigerian holding company was deciding how much to pay for a major Nigerian oil marketing firm. Explores the challenges facing a fast-growing, leveraged buyout firm operating in a global economy but constrained by imperfect local financial and legal institutions. Harvard Business School 9-205-043 Nigeria
Old Mutual Designed to explore the demutualization and listing overseas of one of Africa's largest financial institutions, Old Mutual, and the effects that these actions have on South Africa's domestic capital markets. Explores the particular difficulties that arise as a result of having to educate the historically disenfranchised part of South Africa's population about the change in organizational structure (from a mutual organization to a publicly owned corporate entity), capital markets, and globalization. The emphasis is on understanding the interaction between institutional context and corporate strategy. Includes color exhibits. Harvard Business School 9-701-026 South Africa
Otis South Africa (A) Otis Worldwide CEO, George David, was frustrated with the slow pace of nonwhite advancement within Otis South Africa. After a few years of trying to elicit action from South African management, he decided to send a 28-year old U.S. employee to take over as the human resource manager. Between them, they were charged with boosting nonwhite advancement drastically and with improving the company's operational performance, which had slipped in the early 1980s. Harvard Business School 9-492-049 South Africa
Phase Two: The Pharmaceutical Industry Responds to AIDS Describes how major pharmaceutical firms changed their strategy and pricing policies in the years 2000 to 2002 to respond to the growing AIDS epidemic in Africa. Harvard Business School 9-703-005 Africa
Reconstruction of Zambia Examines the causes of decline--economic, social, and political--of the Zambian economy since 1974. It takes place at the time of the election of Frederick Chiluba, in October 1991. Examines the problems of economic development in Africa, and especially, of structural reform away from closed, statist systems of government. Also examines the problems of external debt and the reliance on commodity industries to produce foreign exchange. Harvard Business School 9-792-089 Zambia
Remaking the Rainbow Nation: South Africa 2002 In April 1994, the world witnessed a political milestone in South Africa. After decades of repression and racial segregation, South Africa's black majority came to power at last, as the African National Congress (ANC), led by the celebrated Nelson Mandela, rode into power with 63% of the vote in the country's first racially inclusive election. Eight years after this electoral victory, however, many South Africans are starting to question the shifting priorities of the ANC. Although the political situation of the country has vastly improved, the economy remains fragile, and some of the ANC's most loyal allies are decrying what they see as a change of faith. Thabo Mbeki, a former political exile who became president in 1999, must now decide what democracy means for South Africa and how best to preserve it. Harvard Business School 9-702-035 South Africa
Royal Dutch/Shell in Nigeria (A) Working with Shell's country manager for Nigeria, the company's Committee of Managing Directors must decide how to respond to the Nigerian government's decision to impose the death sentence on Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other leaders of a movement for the rights of the Ogoni (one of Nigeria's 240 ethnic groups). As the case opens, Saro-Wiwa and his codefendants have just been found guilty of inciting murder in a trial that international observers have criticized as deeply flawed. Saro-Wiwa, an environmentalist, writer, businessman, television producer, and human rights activist, has been a vocal critic of not only the Nigerian government but also Shell. Provides background on Shell, on its business in Nigeria, and on environmental and human rights issues in the Niger Delta. Harvard Business School 9-399-126 Nigeria
South Africa: Getting in GEAR In 1997, Thabo Mbeki is contemplating South Africa's performance since the end of Apartheid in 1994. The economy has done fairly well, but the government's macroeconomic strategy calls for higher growth and employment creation. The case describes the country's history, especially Apartheid, and various social problems that persist: unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, AIDS, crime, and education. Tries to understand the interaction between these problems and the macroeconomic strategy, and considers whether another approach is necessary. Harvard Business School 9-798-012 South Africa
The CAMPFIRE Program: Wildlife Management in Zimbabwe "Examines an innovative, village-based management program in Zimbabwe. While the program has been quite successful, executive director Steven Kasere is concerned about the future. The program has become quite controversial in the environmental community, and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) support may be in peril. Harvard Business School 9-799-085 Zimbabwe
The Cheetah Conservation Fund Bush Project Laurie Marker, head of the Cheetah Conservation Fund, is trying to form a for-profit institution, the Bush Project, to control the bush encroachment problem in Namibia. Bush encroachment not only destroys the general ecosystem, but it also has a harmful impact on the Cheetah population. Although USAID has provided some initial funding for the project, it will survive in the long run only if it is financially successful. Marker must determine whether the Bush Project is financially viable. This case introduces the reader to the tension between business and the environment in an emerging market. Harvard Business School 9-205-046 Namibia
The New Partnership for Africa's Development In a world context of international institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund and their interaction with developing countries, this case looks at an African development initiative to address its own problems: The New Economic Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). With an emphasis on democracy and governance, NEPAD's primary objective is to eradicate poverty in Africa and bring long-term and sustainable political, economic, and social change to the region. Examines in depth this initiative "by Africans for Africans" and how it is likely to evolve. Harvard Business School 9-704-006 Africa
The Rwandan Tea Industry: Looking into the Future In 2003, the Rwandan government was focused on transforming the nation's tea industry into a world-class competitor. To accomplish this objective and stave off the downward prices that plagued the international tea market, the government believed that the industry needed to develop a diversified and value-added product portfolio. This would entail large investments in improving quality and productivity, as well as a new and more competitive price scheme for farmers. Part of the government's strategy for the tea industry involved wide-scale privatization to infuse the industry with capital, competition, and management expertise. But it remained uncertain whether the government could achieve its own objectives while ceding control to private, probably foreign, owners. Could Rwandan tea find its way in a complicated and highly competitive international market? Harvard Business School 9-704-007 Rwanda
Uganda and the Washington Consensus Under the direction of President Museveni, much of the world has heaped praise on Uganda for transforming its economy from devastation to growth and managing the ethnic and racial strife that has divided the country in the past. Following a decade of reforms, Uganda is finally reaping some of the benefits brought by economic austerity. Indeed, Uganda presents a textbook case of IMF structural adjustment. President Museveni must now decide the best way in which to govern his country into the next century. Chief challenges include: how to diversify the export base and attract foreign investment; how to manage the burden imposed by external debt; and how to distribute scarce resources (balancing competing demands for investment in human capital, spending on social and economic infrastructure and health services, along with a whole host of other demands). Harvard Business School 9-798-047 Uganda
WARDA: Leading a Rice Revolution in West Africa The West Africa Rice Development Association, along with various national and international partners, was developing and transferring new rice technologies to farmers throughout West and Central Africa. While production in West Africa was growing faster than any other part of the world, the region did not produce enough rice to meet local demand. As director general of the Association, Kanayo Nwanze believed that West African governments in general did not give enough attention to agricultural research because its impact was too difficult to measure. Nwanze had to figure out how to change the mindset of national policy makers and put agricultural research on the front burner. Harvard Business School 9-901-001 West Africa
Windhoek Nature Reserve: Financing a Sustainable Conservation Model in Namibia In 2003, a Namibian entrepreneur was deciding how to finance and manage the risks of an ecotourism, nature reserve, venture project. Explores the challenges facing an entrepreneur operating in an emerging market with imperfect local financial and legal institutions. Harvard Business School 9-205-066 Namibia
Woolworths South Africa Woolworths South Africa is one of the most successful retail chains in the country, modeled on Marks and Spencer of the United Kingdom. This case focuses on the sources of Woolworth's competitive advantage within South Africa and the challenges of growth in the wake of saturation among South African whites and new limits by Marks and Spencer on Woolworths' growth outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Harvard Business School 9-798-026 South Africa
Bootstrapping BIZWIZ Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) G-CS-01-05 South Africa
The Battle of Isandlwana: lessons for the 21st Century inspired by the narration of David Rattray of Fugitive's Drift The Battle of Isandlwana is a great South African case study in which grand strategy both failed and succeeded. The Zulu army, under the leadership of King Cetshwayo, inflicted a humiliating defeat on the British invading force, fighting in the name of the “great white queen”, Victoria Regina.This is a remarkable account of military victory against the odds, great courage and leadership. Although this battle took place more than 120 years ago, the telling of it yields many insights into the principles of sound strategy, organisation and leadership.The substance is in the learnings. The facts of the case study are as accurate as possible, given that even historians differ on some points. We have woven together both provable fact, oral history, and discretionary interpretation from a range of sources. In essence, this is a contextualised account of what happened around the day, 22 January 1879. Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) G1-00 South Africa
The FMCG launch event "This case is suitable for teaching in the field of Project Management. The case is suitable for all levels of management audience and is probably best used in an introductory level project management course.
The case has been designed to demonstrate the various aspects of the Project Management Body of Knowledge from PMI ®.
The setting of the case is a project which is being held to support the launch of a new fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) product and involves the concept, planning, execution and closure of the project."
Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) G13-05 South Africa
The making of an MBA: Gavin Roberts (A) (B) Gavin Roberts, a final year MBA student at the Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS), is in conflict with Professor Wassim, a newly arrived Professor of Finance, who has been appointed supervisor of his research proposal. The case tests the boundary between confidence and arrogance - has Roberts over-stepped the mark? Could he have done things differently? Has Wassim handled the situation well? MBAs are often characterized as being arrogant. The recruiting and selection process seeks individuals who are achievers, intelligent, charismatic, with leadership potential and filled with confidence. But, many of these attributes can be closely aligned with arrogance. How does one recognize the difference between arrogance and self-confidence and manage this boundary?This case was developed as an introductory case at the start of the MBA programme. The intention was to introduce the class to case teaching, and simultaneously focus on what can perhaps be defined as the most ugly of all MBA traits: arrogance.Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) G7-05 South Africa
The Run on the Rand The Run on the Rand describes the rapid depreciation of the South African rand late 2001. For no obvious reason, the currency suddenly weakened by around 40% during the months of September-December, 2001. So dramatic was the decline, it sparked a special commission of inquiry, at the request of President Mbeki. The main purpose of the inquiry was to investigate allegations of questionable corporate finance transactions by banks, and contraventions of exchange control regulations, which were said to have sparked the "almost bizarre depreciation". Finance Minister Trevor Manuel wanted to ensure that the "wrongdoings of the few were not at the expense of the many"Gordon Institute of Business Science (GIBS) G6-05 South Africa
Cooperative Credit and Finance This case study outlines the strategies employed by an agricultural development project for farmer financing through agricultural cooperatives. It can be used for developing discussion on the distribution of credit to a farming community, credit as a method for agricultural development, distribution of credit to smallholder farmers and farmer groups, co-operation in agriculture, and assessing groups for loan schemes. Cranfield University 286-009-1
Cooperative Market Finance This case study outlines a strategic group decision for the purchase and sale of grain in Nigeria. Any or all of the following teaching points can be developed: (1) the basics and theories of agricultural development; (2) the role of cooperation in management; (3) the importance of management organisation; (4) decision making; and (5) planning. Cranfield University 386-016-1
Agricultural Development Project: Nigeria This case outlines the problems facing a statewide agricultural project in the distribution of inputs to the farming community. The case emphasises: (1) the basic principles of marketing; (2) the differences between selling and marketing; and (3) the importance of preparing a coordinated marketing plan. 586-024-1 Nigeria
BHP BILLITON: THE AUSTRALIAN MINING COMPANY'S GROWTH STRATEGIES In 2001, BHP, an Australian 'natural resources company' and Billiton, a British mining company, merged to form the world's largest mining company - the BHP Billiton Group. Since its inception, the group has been focusing on global expansions, leveraging on BHP's expertise in natural resources and Billiton's vast experience in the mining industry. By June 2004, the group had a market capitalisation of US$54 billion. This case study, while highlighting the global growth strategies of the BHP Billiton Group, offers the scope to discuss its plans for sustaining its leadership in the worldwide mining industry. 304-601-1 India
Media Monitoring Services: Adding Value to Advertising In September 2001, Uche Aligbe, the managing director of Media Monitoring Services, was astounded by the letter he had just received from one of his biggest clients serving him notice of cessation of business at the end of the year. Mr. Aligbe had been battling with his computerization effort to get his television and radio monitoring process automated for over six months without any definite result. A competitor from South Africa, Media Trak, entered the market in mid 2001 with an automated process that could provide clients with reports within 3 days of the beginning of the new month versus two weeks with MMS. This new development prompted the big advertisers to consider moving their business from MMS to the new organization. Aligbe had a major challenge of satisfying his existing clients, coping with the new competitor and competing effectively for the future. 586-024-1 Nigeria
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